China’s Philanthropy Development 2015 in a Nutshell

慈善蓝皮书摘要

中文 English

2015 was the year legislation on philanthropy first caught public attention. The Overseas NGO Management Law and the Charity Law were published for public comment; philanthropy scholars joined social organizations to urge open the doors of legislation; industrial chambers of commerce and business associations were de-coupled from governmental departments to achieve administrative separation; and Civil Affairs agencies explored the creation of a new system for the comprehensive supervision of social organizations.

2015 also saw citizen charity go mainstream as internet charity became wildly popular. ‘Finger Philanthropy’ not only dismantled traditional forms of charitable donation, but reinterpreted and decentralized public fundraising and citizen donations. It also used the internet’s capacity to connect many different places, points, and projects at the same time to both online and offline donations, clearly making charity the most cultural and creative industry in 2015. Different projects were disseminated by a whole range of media in ways that were both moving and believable. This hugely magnified the social influence of charity and gave birth to many working heroes of the internet age.

2015 was also a year of structural re-organization for philanthropy. The social sciences helped form many heavyweight academic institutions that promoted philanthropy as a scholarly discipline. Enterprise philanthropy focused more on sharing its products and technologies with charitable organizations, providing technical support and a platform for citizen participation. The philanthropic environment also improved and sector-supported alliances emerged. Social enterprises explored path transformation by forming different platforms and certification methods. They also kept in step with the national “one Belt and one Road” strategy and actively advanced internationalization by going aboard.

Out of the year’s Ten Talking Points in Philanthropy, eight were positive. However, the two others exposed serious social problems. One concerned four young siblings left-behind in Bijie (Guizhou Province), who collectively committed suicide out of abject helplessness. The other involved a man who used web-based charitable donations for ‘educational support’ as a cover to solicit and sexually abuse young female students. The former case highlighted the severe imbalances within overall national socio-economic development. The latter became a powerful reason for excluding individual donations from the scope of public donations under the Charity Law. In addition, social organizations working on educational assistance, the environment, labor and women experienced a tightening of their space to exist and operate. Questions on how government entrustment or procurement of services by social welfare organizations could be made more fair and equitable indicated the efforts still needed to create true government support for social organizations. Moreover, National People’s Congress delegates expressed particular concern over how to distribute the hundreds of billions of Renminbi generated from sales of social welfare lottery tickets during 2015. Mid-year, the State Audit Administration disclosed a hugely fraudulent and illegal use of social welfare lottery funds. Questions began fermenting in society at large over whether the social welfare lottery fund should be regarded as a philanthropic or national financial resource; how it should be distributed; whether supply-side reforms were needed; and systemic top-level reforms with increased public participation and oversight.

2015 was also a fruitful year for philanthropy. By the end of the year, there were 658, 000 social organizations nationwide, an increase of 8.6% over the 606,000 by the end of 2014. Out of these, 326,000 were membership-based organizations, 4,719 were foundations and 327,000 private non-enterprises entities.

Roughly 100 million people nationwide (in mainland China) registered as volunteers in 2015, or 7.27% of the national population. Of these, 94.88 million actively took part in volunteer services. Volunteer contributions increased 6.9% in 2015, totalling 1.559 billion hours nationwide and valued at CNY 60 billion. The total number of volunteers increased by 4.87 million over 2014, or an increase of 5.4%. The donation rate increased by 4.9 percent. Volunteer service time increased by 337 million hours or 27.5%. Donation value increased by CNY 15.7 billion, an actual increase of 29%.

Donations from society in the form of cash and goods totalled CNY 105.8 billion in 2014, with CNY 79 billion in cash and securities and CNY 26.8 billion in goods. The social welfare lottery fund added a further CNY 36.1 billion and the in-year value of volunteer services equated to roughly CNY 44.2 billion. Together, these totalled CNY186.1 billion in social donations.

Social donations are anticipated to total CNY 99.2 billion in 2015, with donations received by the foundation system potentially reaching CNY 37.4 billion; charity system cash and goods CNY 36.2 billion; donations of cash and goods to the Ministry of Civil Affairs system CNY 5.623 billion; and donations to other organizations CNY 20 billion. Adding the imputed value of volunteer service hours nationwide (CNY 60 billion) and an estimated CNY 34 billion from the social welfare lottery fund, this yields a total value of CNY 193.2 billion.

Anticipated social donations (goods and cash) for 2015 were slightly below those for 2014, but the increased number of volunteers, and the extension in volunteer service hours, indicate that the total value of charitable donations will exceed the 2014 figure. This demonstrates that growth in volunteer services has achieved significant dimensions.

2015年是法治慈善进入大众视野的元年。《境外非政府组织管理法》、《慈善法》先后公开征求意见;公益学术界和社会组织联手推动国家开门立法;行业协会商会与行政机关脱钩,实现去行政化;民政部门探索建立新型监管体制,实现对社会组织的综合监管。

2015年也是大众慈善进入主流的一年。公益+互联网在2015年狂飙突进。指尖公益不仅解构了传统慈善的捐赠方式,给予公共募捐和大众捐赠以去中心化的新诠释,还通过移动互联在同一时间连接多地、多点、多项目和网上、网下的捐赠,让公益俨然成了2015年最具文化创意的行业,各式各样的项目通过丰富多彩的传播方式,以情动人,以理示人,致使公益的社会影响力被成百倍地放大,一大批网络时代的平民英雄涌现出来。

2015年还是慈善公益行业进行结构性重组的一年。社科界发起成立多个重量级公益学术机构,推动慈善公益称为学术专业;企业公益更加注重将自有产品或技术向公益组织开放,成为公益组织的技术支持和公众参与平台;慈善行业生态环境向好,行业支持联盟不断涌现;社会企业探索路径转型,建立多个平台,推出认证办法;在一带一路的国家战略导向下,公益组织走出国门,积极推进国际化进程。

2015年十大慈善热点事件中,8件为正向,2件曝出了严重的社会问题。一是毕节留守四兄妹因心理无助而走上绝路、集体自杀;二是“助学达人”借网络发起个人募捐性侵女童,假借慈善名义骗捐并实施犯罪行为。前者凸显了当前我国经济与社会发展严重失衡的现状,后者成为慈善法必须将个人募捐排斥在公募之外的重例。此外,助学、环保、劳工、妇女组织等领域出现生存及活动空间受到挤压,政府委托或购买社会公益组织服务上如何处理得更加公正和平等,体现政府对公益组织的真实支持也需要努力。还有,2015年,彩票公益金筹集继续超过千亿元,如何分配引发了全国人大代表的特别关注。国家审计署于年中披露了彩票公益金使用中存在的大量违法违规现象。彩票公益金到底是慈善资源还是国家财政资源,应该如何进行资源配置,是否需要进行供给侧改革、做出顶层设计和加强公众参与和监督,等等问题开始在全社会发酵。

2015年的慈善公益事业成果丰硕。截止2015年12月底,全国共有社会组织65.8万个,比2014年的60.6万个增长8.6%。其中社会团体32.6万个,基金会4719个,民办非企业单位32.7万个。

2015年全国登记注册志愿者约1亿人,占人口总数的7.27%;实际参与志愿服务的活跃志愿者总量为9488万人,2015年志愿者捐赠率为6.9%,捐赠志愿服务时间为15.59亿小时,全国志愿者捐赠价值为600亿元。与2014年相比,2015年活跃志愿者捐赠总量增加了487万人,增长率为5.4%;志愿者捐赠率提升了4.9%,志愿者捐赠时间增长了3.37亿小时,增长率为27.5%。志愿者捐赠价值增长了157亿元,实际增长率为29%。

2014年,全国实际接收现金及物资的社会捐赠总量为1058亿元。其中,货币及有价证券捐赠790亿元,物资捐赠折价268亿元。另有彩票公益金社会公益使用量为361亿元,当年志愿服务捐赠折算价值约442亿元。全核算社会公益资源总量为1861亿元。

2015年,预期社会捐赠总量将达到992亿元。其中,基金会系统接受的捐赠总额预估为374亿元;慈善会系统的捐赠款物预估为362亿元;民政系统接受的社会捐赠款物56.23亿元,其他机构200亿元。加上全国志愿服务小时折算价值600亿元,和预估彩票公益金社会公益使用量340亿元,全核算社会慈善公益总价值预计将达到1932亿元。

尽管2015年预期的社会捐款捐物总量略低于2014年,不过,由于2015年志愿服务人数增长、服务时间延长导致志愿服务小时折算价值有明显增长,致使2015年与2014年相比,全核算社会慈善公益捐赠总价值有所增长。这表明,志愿服务在中国的成长已经有了显著效果。

Editor in Chief: Yang Tuan

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