Strategies for the Internationalization of Chinese NGOs: A Study by Huang Haoming

China Development Brief (Winter 2013 Quarterly)

中文 English

China has become the world’s second largest economy. Alongside the development of China’s market economy and ‘going out’ strategy, Chinese economic enterprises have internationalized rapidly. However, the internationalization of Chinese NGOs1 remains rudimentary.

Internationalizing China’s NGOs can facilitate a better understanding of the laws, policies, culture, communities, and religion of different countries. It can help Chinese organizations to understand the situation of other countries’ NGOs and establish more partnerships with international organizations. Not only will this enable the development of China’s domestic NGO sector but it will also transmit information and support to China’s internationalizing business sector. Furthermore, the internationalization of NGOs also contributes to national diplomacy by improving interactions, trust, and co-operations between Chinese people and people from other nations. Through doing this is can help to answer the development conundrum posed by Xi Jinping at a press conference after the 18th Party Congress: “how can China better understand the world, and how can the world better understand China”. (“如何让中国更加了解世界,让世界更加了解中国”)

1. Defining the internationalization of NGOs

There is no clear definition of NGOs’ internationalization. There are some similarities shared with the internationalization of business corporations. For example they are both politically and financially independent from the national government, they both have transnational operations, and they both establish headquarters. However the nature of these two kinds of institutions is different: NGOs are non-profit, working on public interest issues on behalf of the international community.2

There are also similar strategies between an NGO’s internationalization and a businesses internationalization. Firstly, they operate on the international level, mainly developing projects based around the international community. Secondly, they have internationalized their organizational structure, which includes internationalizing their finance, human resources, and management. Once again, there are also many differences. These include different stakeholders, product and service models, influence exerted by their consumers, professionalism, and economic and cultural values.3

Models of NGO’s internationalization

There are various models that describe the internationalization of an NGO. The first model depicts how NGOs that are established on the national level develop gradually into regional and international organizations. Following the influence of the globalising economy, these NGOs set up headquarters in their home countries, and then branch out into other countries and regions. Another model focuses on the fact that NGOs establish partnerships with international organizations and local civil society, participating in international affairs and facilitating the internationalization of their organization. A third model is that NGOs operate projects and establish administrative offices overseas, localizing their management system. Finally another model is that NGOs expand their international co-operation partnerships by conducting regional and international research.

To summarize, these four models explain how by taking advantage of international networks and co-operations, the localization of professional talent, and the participation in international affairs, NGOs can internationalize, break free of the political influence of developed nations and enhance civil society’s participation in international affairs.

The main features of an NGO’s internationalization

Internationalizing NGO’s go from focusing on domestic affairs to international affairs and then gradually to becoming a truly international advocate and activist. From a historical point of view, the internationalization of NGO’s has developed its own special features based on the following: 1) when participating in international affairs, NGOs are influenced by donors; 2) the expansion of an NGO’s network is affected by its development stage; 3) NGOs participate in international affairs with opinions and voices that are often confrontational to both government and business enterprises; 4) autonomous alliances are formed through the participation of NGOs in international affairs; and 5) the power of civil society’s participation in international affairs and international aid has changed fundamentally. Although of course the features of NGO’s internationalization varies across different countries, the current challenges remain the relationships between NGOs and governments, NGOs and business, and NGOs and their own self-regulation and alliances.

The current situation of Chinese NGOs’ internationalization

Chinese NGOs have rarely participated in international affairs. According to a 2012 statistical report on the development of social services published by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, 556 Chinese NGOs were involved in international affairs. This represented just 0.11% of the total of 499,000 registered NGOs in China (called “social organizations”, 社会组织). Of these 556 NGOs, 499 were Social Associations (社会团体), 49 were Civil Non-enterprise Institutions (民办非企业单位), and 8 were foundations (基金会). These figures respectively counted for 0.18%, 0.22%, and 0.26% of the total amount of these types of organization in 2012. According to data from the China Foundation Centre, as of the 7th October 2013 China had 51 foundations that ran international projects, just 1.50% of a total of 3399 foundations. This included 34 public foundations (2.49% of the total of 1368), and 17 non-public fundraising foundations (0.84% of the total of 2013).

The participation of Chinese NGO’s in international affairs can be said to display four features: 1) Chinese NGOs have started engaging in international humanitarian aid; 2) Chinese NGOs have actively expressed their voices through direct membership in international NGOs, establishing networks between local and overseas NGOs and through participating in international affairs through co-operative projects; 3) Chinese NGO have strengthened co-operation with NGOs in developing countries; and 4) Chinese NGOs have actively cooperated with businesses to participate in international aid-giving.

2. SWOT analysis of the internationalization of Chinese NGOs

The first part of our survey looked at the “external environment” of Chinese NGOs’ internationalization. It focused on 11 areas. According to the responses we can see that the opportunities for developing Chinese NGO’s internationalization can be described as  “political environment”, “economic environment”, “cultural environment”, “international organizations”, “international environment” and “public attitudes”. The challenges were described as “legal environment”, “policy environment”, “international relations”, “foreign organizations”, and “localized partnerships”. According to the responses, the strengths outweigh the challenges.

We also analyzed the “internal environment” of Chinese NGOs’ internationalization. As the chart below shows, five indicators represented weaknesses: “internal management system”, “leadership”, “professional staff”, “financial resources”, and “international experience” [listed in order of appearance in the chart below]. All five were described as deficiencies. This reflects the overall development of Chinese NGOs, and the results are echoed in Professor Wang Ming’s book “社会组织纲论” [click here to view].

 

Main hurdles to internationalization

With the rapid growth of the Chinese economy, the Chinese state has accomplished great diplomatic achievements and Chinese businesses have successfully followed their ‘going out’ strategy. However, the effective participation of China’s NGO’s in this ‘soft power’ initiative has encountered five major hurdles:

  • the dual management system constrains the development of NGO’s internationalization;
  • the lack of policy impedes social organizations, private non-enterprise, and foundations from establishing overseas offices or branches. The relevant approval processes and methods are also lacking;
  • narrow ideas, small scope, and insufficient funding limit Chinese NGO’s participation in international affairs.
  • there is a shortage of professional staff;
  • governmental funding of Chinese NGOs is insufficient.

3. Strategies, co-operation models, and priorities of Chinese NGOs’ internationalization

Analysis of strategies

  • According to the results from our survey, there are four feasible strategies for internationalizing Chinese NGOs:
  • strengthening their co-operation and exchange with overseas NGOs. Two kinds of overseas NGOs are highlighted in this process: firstly, Chinese NGOs establish distance partnerships with local overseas NGOs (that remain in their country of origin), developing exchange programs and co-operations with them; secondly, Chinese NGOs co-operate with overseas NGOs that operate in China;
  • participating in the UN multilateral system;
  • participating in international conferences. Chinese NGO’s participation in international conferences creates opportunities for them to get involved in activities held by international organizations and overseas NGOs; participate in official international aid operations.

Analysis of cooperation models

Based on those four strategies proposed above, five co-operation models are suggested:

  • ‘local partnership’ [属地伙伴] model: Chinese NGOs establish long-term partnerships with local overseas NGOs [in their country of origin] which supports the internationalization of the Chinese NGO.
  • ‘NGO operated, Government funded’ [民办官助] model: Chinese NGOs run programs overseas that the government supports through overseas aid funding.
  • ‘NGO-enterprise co-operation’ [社办联企] model: NGO run projects and then co-operate with internationalized Chinese enterprise, using networks with the international community, local NGO, and communities to achieve a “win-win” outcome.
  • ‘Borrowing the boat to go to sea’ [借船出海] model: Chinese NGOs develop themselves by learning from the experiences and networks acquired from existing partnerships with international NGOs and UN multilateral organizations.
  • ‘NGO-Media co-operation’ [社媒合作] model: through media, especially new media, Chinese NGOs gain international vision, which advances their ‘going out’ strategy.

Analysis of priorities

We asked those who took part in our survey about which type of projects they would list as “priorities” to work on overseas: “business service”, “agricultural and rural development”, “scientific research”, “education”, “sanitation”, “culture”, “sports”, “environment”, “social service”, “law”, “religion”, and “employment”. The results were encouraging and seven types of work received over 60% of support (listed in order of highest response): ecological environment, education, social service, sanitation, scientific research, culture, and agricultural and rural development. The five types of work that received less than 60% of support were (listed in order of highest response): employment-supporting, law, sports, business service and religion. Although “social service” [社会服务] achieved a rate of 74.19%, it is difficult to define what constitutes “social service”. Therefore, our research team suggested that more attention should be paid on facilitating internationalization for organizations working on environment, education, health, scientific research, culture and agricultural and rural development.

 

4. Policy recommendations for Chinese NGOs’ internationalization

The internationalization of Chinese NGOs is a significant part of Chinese soft power, and a long-term goal for those Chinese organizations’ that already participate in giving foreign aid. To achieve this not only requires the consideration of future long-term policy and legislation, but also research on current policies. We make the following three recommendations:

Recommendations on long-term policy and legislation

From a long-term strategic point of view, we need to consider legislating for Chinese NGO’s participation in foreign aid. As soon as possible The Ministry of Commerce, along with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, the International Department, Ministry of Civil Affairs, and other Party and government offices, should formulate specific laws and regulations for Chinese NGOs to participate in foreign aid. We need to develop a legal foundation for internationalizing Chinese NGOs to ensure that they receive legal protection when they ‘go out’.

Coordinating organizations should also be established at the ministerial level to internationalize Chinese NGOs. The current coordinating system for foreign aid at the ministerial level can be used. Special offices should be set up at the Ministry of Civil Affairs that coordinate with the Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Civil Affairs,the International Department, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of Finance, the National Tax Administration, State Administration of Foreign Exchange, and the General Administration of Customs.

NGO internationalization should be further strengthened by policy research, high-level planning, and national-level comparative studies, using social science research to guide policy theories. The government can assign academics and national think tanks to study how to adopt suitable strategies.

Policy mechanisms related to the government’s current outsourcing of social services to domestic NGOs should also be studied. In the spirit of the guiding opinions issued by the General Office of the State Council, the Ministry of Commerce should take the lead to cooperate with the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Civil Affairs, the National Development and Reform Commission, and other government organizations to establish a service-contracting system for China’s foreign aid.

Long-term plans for NGO’s internationalization should be formulated. Special funds should be set up within future national foreign aid budgets to support Chinese NGOs and assist them in running projects overseas. A co-funded model between government and non-government can be used. NGOs can operate the projects while the government can work as a supervisory agency, assisting in financial management and ensuring funds are used correctly.

Policy recommendations for near-future work

Articles about NGO participation in foreign aid should be added into China’s “Regulations on the Management of Foreign Aid”, enabling Chinese NGOs to operate by rules and regulations that better develop their internationalization and forge a “NGO-Operated, Government-funded” model. The Ministry of Commerce should establish a special agency to contact with foreign aid and draft new rules and regulations for NGOs to take part in foreign aid, building up a raft of mechanisms for cooperation, exchange, and communication.

The Ministry of Civil Affairs should delegate power for authorising an NGO’s participation in overseas aid to the management board of the NGO or to a mechanism that has been established by that board (the NGO should still submit documents for filing with MOCA and it’s professional supervisory unit). MOCA should also formulate policies, and improve existing rules and regulations for overseas NGO working in China to encourage co-operation between local Chinese NGOs and overseas NGOs in China. This cooperation will form a component of the strategic alliances and support systems for the internationalization of Chinese NGOs.

Elsewhere, the State Administration of Foreign Exchange should simplify the procedure of donating funds and reduce the approvals required for exchange-rate management for NGOs that are internationalizing. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security should give the power to establish salary pay scales to an internationalizing NGO’s management board. Finally, the State Administration of Taxation should be advised to cut individual income tax for NGO staff, treating their income the same as the income of diplomatic staff. This will reduce double taxation and encourage NGOs to internationalize.

Recommendations for NGOs

The internal governance structure of NGOs should be standardised and strategic research for NGOs’ participation in international affairs should be strengthened. Opportunities and challenges encountered in the process of an NGO’s internationalization should be analyzed according to China’s own circumstances and feasible development solutions should be proposed. These should enable Chinese NGOs to integrate into the overall framework of China’s diplomacy, and thereby improve the projection of Chinese soft power.

The capacity of NGOs’ to participate in internationalization should be enhanced through capacity-building measures. Utilizing funding from governmental service contracting, a group of outstanding NGOs can be selected for fast-track internationalization. This group should be encouraged to develop their international communication, humanitarian aid, and human resource management skills, and thus gradually expand their scope and gain experience. A group of newly-established non-public fundraising foundations should also be encouraged to develop international exchanges and co-operatative projects. At the same time they should also compete to gain funding and support from government sources.

NGOs’ human resources should be strengthened and the overall quality of personnel should be enhanced. NGOs should take appropriate measures to improve staff salaries and equip them with the necessary knowledge on foreign affairs, communication, presentation, and social activities. This can be further improved through participation in international exchange programs. NGOs’ capacity-building measures should also be developed to guarantee their legitimacy, transparency, and accountability. Special focus should be given to their management, creation and innovation, and implementation and sustainability capacities.

Chinese NGOs should be encouraged and supported to become members of international organizations, and to expand their networks and co-operations with established international organizations, and forge exchange and communication relationships with NGOs in developed and developing countries. Three aspects should be considered: first of all, lessons should be learned from the experience of NGOs in developing countries; secondly, in order to improve research, the historical experience of expanding and developing NGO sectors within developing countries should be drawn upon, especially Asian countries like the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka, and former socialist Eastern European countries; thirdly, Chinese participants should join international and regional NGO alliances and the committees and working groups of international organizations and international NGOs. Think-tanks and coordinating organizations should be established to offer more advice and services to the management departments of national NGOs. Research should be developed to study cultural differences, development strategies, NGO’s self- and mutual-regulation, and development trajectories.

Overall, the successful internationalization of Chinese NGOs requires both support from government, business, society, international NGOs and international organizations, as well as self-development within NGOs through mutual learning, cooperation through exchanges, and development through competition. Only then will we see Chinese NGOs playing a significant role in international affairs and contributing to the advance of Chinese soft power.

 


  1. The author refers to “social organizations” (社会组织) throughout this article, not “NGOs”. By doing so he is referring to organizations that are registered with the Ministry of Civil Affairs. We have translated the term as “NGOs” 

  2. S. Hobb, Global Challenge to Statehood: The Increasingly Important Role of NGO”, 5, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 1997, pp 191-207. 

  3. 黄浩明.非营利组织战略管理[M].北京:中国人民大学出版社, 2003.4-5 

我国社会组织国际化战略与路径研究

 

来源:中国发展简报2013年冬季刊
作者:黄浩明等
中国已经成为世界上第二大经济大国,12年来,随着我国开放型经济水平不断提高和走出去战略的推进,中国企业国际化取得了跨越式的发展。然而,目前中国社会组织国际化战略还处于初级阶段,即刚刚起步的阶段。中国社会组织国际化可以更多地了解不同国家的法律、政策、文化、社区、宗教等事务,了解其他国家社会组织发展现状,与当地民间组织建立合作伙伴关系,不仅促进社会组织自身发展,也能为中国企业国际化提供咨询和支持。此外,社会组织国际化可以为国家总体外交服务。社会组织国际化的根本任务是加强中国人民与其他国家人民之间的交往、交流、理解和合作,增强国与国人民之间的信任度,实现习近平总书记在中国共产党十八大会议结束之后会见中外记者时的期待——“如何让中国更加了解世界,让世界更加了解中国”的战略目标。
一、社会组织国际化背景研究
社会组织国际化的定义,目前还没有明确的结论。但社会组织国际化与企业国际化有着相同的特性,即在政治和经济上独立于各国政府、跨国运作、具有总部基地等;不过,其宗旨与企业的国际化有着根本的不同:社会组织自身是非营利的,是以服务于国际社会的公共利益为目的[1]
社会组织国际化战略与企业的国际化战略有很多相同点:第一、业务的立足点在国际层面,以在国际社会开展工作为主;第二、组织层面的国际化,当然包括资金、人才和运作管理的国际化。当然也有很多不同点,包括利益群体、产品和服务的模式、用户对机构的影响力、从业人员职业性和专业性、价值观念与文化观念等六个方面。[2]
1.社会组织国际化的主要模式
第一、社会组织立足本国,逐步发展成为区域性、国际性的组织。随着经济全球化的影响,社会组织在起步阶段坚持以本国为基地,而后逐步向其他国家和地区发展和延伸;
第二、社会组织与国际组织或者属地国民间组织建立合作伙伴关系,参与国际事务中的热点问题,推动社会组织的国际化;
第三、社会组织在海外设立不同类型的项目或者行政办公室,而其管理人才属地化趋势日益明显;
第四、社会组织研究工作在向区域化和国际化方向发展,社会组织合作领域正逐步扩大。
综上所述,社会组织国际化的模式多种多样。利用网络结构与国际组织紧密合作,专业人才属地化和参与国际事务,这些都说明社会组织的国际化进程日益明显,并且正在逐步摆脱发达国家传统地缘政治的影响,提升了公民社会在解决国际事务中的地位。
2.社会组织国际化的主要特点
社会组织国际化的发展经历了以国内事务为主到逐步关注国际事务,再到成为国际舞台上真正的倡导者和行动者等三个阶段。
在这一进程中,社会组织的国际化发展也形成了自己的特点,从历史上来看,主要有以下五方面:第一、社会组织在参与国际事务过程中经常会受到资助方观点和立场的影响;第二、社会组织在拓展和延伸网络结构过程中受其发展阶段的影响;第三、社会组织在国际事务活动中观点鲜明,与政府和企业对立的趋势也日趋明显;第四、社会组织参与国际事务形成了一批自律性的联盟组织;第五、民间参与国际事务和国际援助的力量发生了质的变化。
当然,不同的国家社会组织国际化趋势具有不同特点,也呈现出多样化的特点。尽管如此,目前主要的挑战依然是社会组织与政府的关系、社会组织与企业的关系以及社会组织之间自律和联盟等。
3.我国社会组织国际化战略现状
客观上讲,中国大陆社会组织中,参与国际事务及其涉外组织类社会组织的比例还是比较小。根据2012民政部发布的社会服务发展统计报告统计显示:2012年国际及其涉外组织类的社会组织为556个,占2012年度49.9万个社会组织总数的0.11%,其中社会团体499个、民办非企业单位49个和基金会8个,分别占2012年度社团、民非和基金会总数的0.18%,0.022%和0.26%。
根据中国基金会网中心数据,截至2013年10月7日,中国拥有国际事务类基金会51个,占3399个基金会总数的1.50%,其中公募基金会34个,占1368个公募基金会总数的2.49%,非公募基金会17个,占2031个非公募基金会总数的0.84%。
中国大陆社会组织参与国际事务出现了以下4个方面的特征:第一、中国社会组织开始走向国际,参与人道主义援助事务。第二、社会组织积极表达民间的立场和声音。主要有三种做法:直接加入国际组织,成为其成员;建立国内社会组织网络与国际相关组织对接;以项目合作的方式参与国际事务。第三、社会组织加强与发展中国家社会组织的交流和合作。第四、社会组织积极与企业合作,开始参与国际援助事务。
二、我国社会组织国际化战略的SWOT分析
1. “外部环境”分析
本课题从《调查问卷》的第一部分--我国社会组织国际化战略“外部环境”分析11个样本选项数据显示:我国社会组织国际化战略发展机会分别是政治环境、经济环境、文化氛围、国际组织、国际环境和公众态度;发展威胁分别是法律环境、政策环境、国际关系、国外组织和属地合作伙伴。数据显示利大于弊(具体结果见图1)。
2. “内部环境”分析
课题组从《调查问卷》的第二部分--我国社会组织国际化战略“内部环境”分析5个样本选项分析中发现,前两项回答指标在66.7%以上确定为社会组织国际化战略的内部发展优势,后三项回答指标在33.3%以上确定为社会组织国际化战略的内部发展劣势。令人吃惊的结果是,调查问卷的五项指标均属发展劣势(具体结果见图2),即表现为我国社会组织国际化战略的内部治理结构不够完善、领导力不足、人力专业化缺乏优势、资金资源不足和没有丰富的国际化战略实践经验。当然,这与我国社会组织整体发展有着密切的关系,数据结果与王名教授在《社会组织论纲》一书中研究成果相一致。
3.面临的主要挑战
随着中国经济的高速发展,政府外交成绩显赫,企业走出去战略的实施也收效颇多,但作为软实力的一部分,社会组织参与国际事务产生的难题很多,主要挑战集中在以下五个方面:第一、缺乏政策依据。社团、民非和基金会三个管理条例中均没有给社会组织在海外设立办事处或分支机构提供政策依据,而且审批程序和方法也不完整;第二、社会组织参与国际事务组织工作思路狭窄,规模小,资金不足;第三、社会组织开展和参与国际事务缺乏专业人才;第四、政府资金支持不够;第五、政府双重管理体制限制社会组织国际化。
三、我国社会组织国际化战略的路径、合作模式和优先性分析
1. “路径”分析
我国社会组织国际化战略的路径,根据本课题《问卷调查》结果,本文提出以下4个目前切实可行的计划:,第一、加强与国外民间组织的合作与交流。这里需要强调的是包括两类国外民间组织:第一类是我国社会组织与所属地国家民间组织建立合作伙伴关系,开展交流与合作;第二类是我国社会组织与发达国家来华的民间组织的交流与合作。第二、参与联合国多边合作。第三、参与各种类型的国际会议。社会组织能否参加世界各种类型的国际会议,关系到是否能够参与世界各类的国际组织和国外民间组织活动。第四、选择国际官方援助项目合作。
2. “合作模式”分析
社会组织如何通过上述4条途径实现国际化战略,本文提出下面5种合作模式。
第一、“属地伙伴”型,是指社会组织在国际化过程中,与属地的民间组织建立长期合作关系,为中国社会组织开展国际化战略提供必要的支持;
第二、“民办官助”型,是指社会组织当先运作,政府从官方发展援助中给予资金支持;
第三、“社办联企”型是指社会组织当先运营,联合中国国际化的企业开展合作,发挥社会组织与国际社会、所在国民间组织、社区联络的优势,形成与企业联合的双赢格局;
第四、“借船出海”型,是指中国社会组织与现有国际民间组织或者联合国多边组织的项目合作,以目前的合作模式为基础,借用现有国际民间组织和联合国多边组织的经验、网络和人脉,为我所用,开展合作;
第五、“社媒合作”型,是指社会组织国际化路径选择过程中,通过媒体的介入和支持,尤其是新媒体的应用,以促进社会组织更具有国际化的视野,社会组织应利用媒体优势,促进实现社会组
织走出去战略。
3.我国社会组织国际化战略“优先性”分析
根据《调查问卷》最初设计的12项选择指标,建议合作领域广泛,包括工商服务、农业与农村发展、科学研究、教育、卫生、文化、体育、生态环境、社会服务、法律、宗教和职业与从业者组织。《调查问卷》的分析结果令人鼓舞,有6类社会优先推动的支持率达到60%以上包括生态环境、教育、社会服务、卫生、科学研究、文化和农业与农村发展类组织。支持率在60%以下的有5类社会组织,包括职业与从业者、法律、体育、工商服务和宗教类组织(详情见图3)。
根据《调查问卷》数据分析显示,尽管社会服务类社会组织得分较高,但目前界定有困难,社会服务领域走出去不太成熟。因此,课题组建议优先推动参与国际化战略实施的社会组织为生态环境、教育、卫生、科学研究、文化和农业与农村发展类社会组织。
四、我国社会组织国际化战略与路径选择的政策建议
社会组织国际化战略是中国软实力的重要组成部分,也是我国社会组织参与国家援外事业的一个长期的战略任务,既需要考虑长远发展目标的政策和立法工作,同时也需要研究当前工作的对策。为此,我们提出以下3部分建议:
1.关于社会组织国际化战略长期发展的立法和政策建议
第一、从国家长远发展战略的视角,应考虑着手社会组织参与国家对外援助的立法工作。建议由商务部牵头,会同外交部、财政部、中联部、民政部等党政部门尽快制定社会组织参与对外援助的具体法规和实施细则,让社会组织参与对外援助成为国家法律的一部分,形成社会组织实施国际化战略的法律基础,从而保证社会组织“走出去”有法可依。
第二、建立社会组织国际化战略工作的部级协调机构,也可以利用现有的援外部级协调机制。建议工作办公室设在民政部民间组织管理局,部级协调机构成员包括商务部、外交部、民政部、中联部、人力资源与社会保障部、财政部、国税总局、国家外汇管理局、国家海关总署等,统一协调社会组织参与国际化战略工作的具体事务。
第三、加强社会组织参与国际化战略工作的政策研究、顶层设计和国别研究,利用国家社会科学基金支持社会组织国际化战略实施提供政策理论指导。政府可委托优秀的学者或高等院校建立国际级的智库,研究社会组织国际化战略的具体应对措施。
第四、研究政府购买社会组织服务的政策机制。根据国务院办公厅关于政府向社会组织购买服务的指导意见精神,建议商务部牵头,会同国家财政部、民政部和发改委等政府机构,建立利用对外援助资金购买社会组织服务的模式。
第五、制订社会组织国际化战略工作的长远实施方案。在国家援外预算总盘子内单列社会组织援助专项资金或建立社会组织援外基金。可以采取政府和民间共同出资的模式,对外以社会组织的形式开展工作,而在资金管理上,政府可作为监督机构,保证资金的正确使用和为社会组织“走出去”服务。
2.关于近期工作的政策建议
第一、将社会组织参与国家对外援助工作的相关内容纳入正在拟定的《对外援助管理条例》,使社会组织参与国家对外援助工作有章可循,从而形成社会组织国家化战略的重要组成部分,建立“民办官助”模式。
第二、建议商务部设立专门联系社会组织参与援外工作的专门机构,起草中国政府鼓励社会组织参与国家援外工作的规章制度,并建立与中国社会组织参与国家援外工作的合作机制和交流、沟通平台。
第三、建议民政部明确从事国际化战略和海外援助工作的社会组织在海外设立办事处的审批权限下放到所在社会组织的理事会或理事会的授权机构,但需要报业务主管部门和民政部备案。
第四、建议民政部制定政策,完善境外民间组织在华管理工作规则,鼓励社会组织与在华的国际民间组织对接,形成中国社会组织国际化的战略联盟和支撑体系中一部分。
第五、建议国家外汇管理局对从事国际化战略工作的社会组织在对外拨款程序和外汇管理等方面减少审批程序,提高工作效率。
第六、建议国家人力资源和社会保障部将从事国际化战略工作的社会组织工作人员的薪酬标准等制定权限下放到所在社会组织理事会。
第七、建议国家税务总局对从事国际化战略工作的社会组织工作人员在海外的薪酬免收个人所得税,享受国家外交人员待遇,减少双重征税,鼓励更多的社会组织参与国际化战略的实施工作。
3.于社会组织的建议
第一、规范社会组织的法人治理结构,加强社会组织走向国际事务的战略研究。根据我国国情,从战略视角分析社会组织在国际化进程中的机遇和挑战,提出切实可行的发展策略,将社会组织走向国际纳入国家外交的总体架构之中,以实现国家软实力整体水平的提升。
第二、加强参与国际化战略实施的社会组织能力建设,利用政府购买服务资金,精选一批优秀的社会组织走向国际。鼓励一批优秀的社会组织利用官方发展援助开展国际交流、人道主义援助和人力资源培训事务,并逐步扩大规模和积累经验。鼓励一批新成立的非公募基金会开展国际交流和公益项目合作,同时争取政府的配套资金加以支持。
第三、加强社会组织的人力资源的开发和建设,提高专业人员的综合素质。社会组织应采取措施适当提高工作人员的待遇,培训必要的外交知识、交往、演讲和社会活动能力,也可以通过加强国际层面的人才与经验交流来增强能力。加强机构的能力建设,尤其是机构的治理、创新、执行和可持续发展的能力,以保证社会组织的正当性、透明性和开放性。
第四、鼓励、支持我国社会组织加入国际性的社会组织,拓宽与知名的国际性社会组织的合作,形成与发达国家、发展中国家社会组织的交流机制。具体运作过程中应考虑三个方面的内容:一是吸取发达国家社会组织发展的经验和教训;二是借鉴一些典型的发展中国家的社会组织发展经验和教训,尤其是亚洲的菲律宾、印度、斯里兰卡和东欧的原社会主义国家社会组织的发展历史,加强研究和学习;三是加入国际和区域社会组织联盟,参与国际机构以及国际性社会组织委员会(或工作小组)的事务。
第五、建立智囊团队,研究成立有效的协调机构,为国家社会组织管理机关提供更多建议和服务。建议开展有关合作文化差异、发展战略、社会组织自律和互律、社会组织如何发展等方面的研究。
展望中国社会组织国际化的发展趋势,社会组织一方面需要政府、企业和社会各界、国际性的社会组织和国际机构的支持,另一方面也需要中国社会组织之间相互交流、学习和自身努力,即在交流中合作,在合作中竞争,在竞争中发展,在重大国际事务中进一步发挥作用,为提高中国整体软实力做出贡献。
(本课题得到民政部资助,项目编号:2013MZACR001-018,并获得民政部2013年“中国社会组织建设与管理”理论研究部级课题一等奖。本文在中国发展简报发表时有删节。课题负责人黄浩明现任中国国际民间组织合作促进会副理事长兼秘书长、研究员;课题组其他人员包括石忠诚、张曼莉、王香奕、杨红萍、薛明、杨光、刘银托、陶棋然等。)

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Executive Director of CANGO (The China Association for NGO Cooperation)

Translated by Zhao Chen

Edited by CDB staff

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