Insights from the China Charity Fair

公益时报

中文 English

Editor’s Note:

The Fifth China Charity Fair took place in Shenzhen at the end of September. It was a huge event, with over 2600 Chinese organizations taking part as well as 75 international ones. The fair also attracted some of the most important names in the country’s charity sector. This article from the Charity Times, which we have edited and abbreviated, presents some of the views and insights offered by the leading figures in Chinese philanthropy during the fair.

 

The Fifth China Charity Fair ended on the 25th of September. On the occasion, more than 230 representatives of international and Chinese social organisations were invited to participate in various sub-forums and discussions. The topics discussed included the Charity Law, fundraising, innovation in charity, charitable trusts, charitable investment, women’s charity and community foundations.

What opinions did they share, and what are their views on the development of the charity sector?

The Charity Law and social enterprises – Xu Yongguang, Chairman of the Narada Foundation

“The benign development of the Chinese charity sector depends on the improvement of the legal mechanism. China’s first ever charity law took effect in September. Much follow-up work is expected to be implemented, notably on taxation policies.

I just heard that the Laoniu Foundation had to pay 250 million yuan of corporate income tax and another 8 million as a fine for being late in their payments. This indicates that foundations are also being made to pay income tax on the income they make from charitable investments. Moreover, the Huamin Foundation reduced its funds to 50 million from 200 million, and Amway halved its original funds from 100 million to 50. The problem of foundations reducing their funds needs to be addressed. The charity law prescribes that charitable organisations can receive tax breaks on their income. Let’s make this come true”, said Xu Yongguang.

He also introduced three upcoming trends: social changes led by innovation on the internet, social enterprises’ movements and cross-sector development.

As he put it, “social enterprises at present need to break through a dilemma: the government is incapable of conducting charity well in spite of its supreme power and affluent funds; social organisations have a strong will to do charity well, but in the meantime are limited due to insufficient funds, power and capabilities; enterprises are rich in funds and resources but prioritising profits.” Therefore, the question is how to exploit and integrate the advantages of each one.

Many asked the chairman of the Narada Foundation what a social enterprise is and what are the differences with a normal enterprise. He gave an example of a successful social enterprise. The Lukang Hospital, which went from being a service institute to being a social enterprise after receiving new investment, provides care for elderly people suffering from disabilities and dementia. The hospital used to be a service institute between 2006 and 2013. By 2016, it had become ten times bigger and it was undertaking a growing number of government care services for the elderly.

The era of the charitable economy is approaching – Wang Zhenyao, dean of the China Global Philanthropy Institute

“The global economy is being tested by charity, as charity is already becoming a shared value for human civilization. China’s charity business is gradually being integrated into international charity. The charity law allows charitable organisations to increase their wealth through investment, which will contribute to the development of charitable finance.”

There will be a fair public judgement for Chen Guangbiao’s charity business –  Ma Weihua, president of the China Global Philanthropy Institute’s board

When asked about the controversial philanthropist Chen Guangbiao and his charity business, Ma Weihua said: “people can make donations in either a high profile or a low-key manner. The charity business is completely open to public opinion, so there will be a fair public judgement of Chen Guangbiao.” The Chinese Global Philanthropy Institute president also spoke about his attitude towards the charity law, expressing his opinion that the implementation of the tax reductions within the charity law will truly be carried out.

Three billion becoming five or six – He Qiaonu, the Qiaonu Foundation

“I started my new business, the Qiaonu Foundation, in 2015, and I promised to donate three billion in stock shares at the time. Nevertheless, I haven’t figured out a strategy for my foundation so far. I appreciate what Mr. Ma Weihua just said: charitable organisations have to be managed according to business management standards. Currently, I am trying to build up an eco-circle for all the environmentalists who want to protect our environment.”

Stricter qualifications for social enterprises – Dian Chunli, Secretary of the China Charity Fair

At the Fourth China Charity Fair last year, a first batch of seven social enterprises received their qualifications. This year, the number of companies recognised as social enterprises rose to sixteen. The secretary of the China Charity Fair claimed that the standards of qualification for this year are much stricter, stating that the enterprise had to have promoted employment, reduced poverty, and made a contribution to environmental protection. The enterprises are supposed to have been established for at least one year and employ more than three members of staff. Furthermore, at least 50% of the enterprise’ income has to be gained from the sale of its charitable services and products.

Dian Chunli also spoke about the Golden Award, which this year was given to a credit management company that provides less well-off people living in rural areas with loans. The company offered 150 loans, for a total of 16.7 billion, to people in 210 counties and 18 provinces”.

Charity is dependent on the government – Zheng Gongcheng, director of the China Social Insurance Association

“China’s charity business has entered a new era of cross-sectoral cooperation. On the one hand, it restricts the government’s actions in the public interest sphere. On the other hand, social organisations are not able to make a difference without government support. Therefore, a cooperative mechanism should be established between the government and social organisations so that both of them will benefit.”

Zheng added that the voluntary, non-governmental and open nature of the charitable sector should be respected. The ideal relations between social organisations and the government should be cooperative and not administrative; the fundamental conditions of China should be respected on account of the traditional virtue of benevolence in Chinese culture.

Capital management in a spirit of sharing – Lu Dezhi, director of the Human Foundation

“The countries attending the G20 summit reached several points of consensus. The core values can be summarised with two keywords: capital and sharing. As I see it, historically there have been three periods for capital operations: a great development before the 20th century; restrictions during the 20th century, especially the middle of the century, for instance through welfare state policies; and broad sharing in the 21st century. The sharing I refer to is not forced sharing but voluntary sharing, which requires more individuals to participate”, says Lu De. He emphasised that in future capital and sharing will represent the mainstays of human development, as well as the harmony between human society and nature.

The origin of the wealth gap – Liu Wenkui, Secretary of the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation

The origin of the wealth gap, in Liu Wenkui’s opinion, is the modern capital mechanism based on the modern enterprise system, which separates management from ownership. This way capital only pursues the best resources and those who don’t own capital are left behind.

Taxation isn’t too useful for balancing the wealth gap. The charity sector has therefore been developing very rapidly, but the basic problem is still far from being resolved. There are still however high expectations towards charity enterprises being able to solve these problems. Liu Wenkui believes that there are three basic differences between charitable enterprises and normal ones:

  • Capital flow – social enterprises are an investment, so the added value they create constitutes public profit rather than private interest.
  • The scope of business – social enterprises have higher moral standards, and would not do anything harmful to society even if it is not legally forbidden.
  • The measure of success – the standard of social enterprises’ success is measured according to whether they solve social problems, and not according to the profit they make.

Stay determined when raising funds – Kang Xiaoguang, dean of the China Institute for Philanthropy and Social Innovation of Renmin University.

“On the one hand, fundraising training should be subject to China’s market demand and explore proper technical approaches; on the other hand, it should incorporate social values and cultural concepts. Currently a lot of foundations are making more and more use of terms from the business world during the process of fundraising, terms like “large donor” and “customer satisfaction”; at the same time, they are losing sight of the needs of those they are supposed to be helping. In future the real needs of the recipients should be stressed, and raising funds should not become the determinant of values and actions.”

We are also troubled by the crisis in trust – international philanthropists

In the wake of the progress Chinese philanthropy has made, an increasing number of people are requiring that the sector be more transparent. This phenomenon is however just as widespread in other countries.

Penelope Cagney, a representative of the Philanthropic Fundraisers Association (US), remarked that “we’ve found out that a wealth of donations is directly flowing to charitable trusts and funds instead of charitable organisations. This is now common in the United States. To illustrate, there is an American charitable organisation, specialising in providing assistance to those who were injured in war, that spends 17 to 20 million dollars per year on various kinds of conferences and administrative expenses but far less on assisting the injured, and this kind of thing provokes distrust from the public. It’s a problem we need to solve.”

The same sort of problems occur in the UK. Dominic Will, the joint manager of one of the biggest face-to-face fundraising companies, Home Fundraising, says frankly: “we are dedicated to cultivating a spirit of voluntary and continuous donation in the public. For instance, we persuade people to allocate a fixed proportion of money from their account to a charitable organisation every month. The spirit we are looking for has now taken shape, however some recent incidents, for instance the case of an elderly lady committing suicide after being harassed by people seeking donations, have reduced donors’ trust in charities as well exposing problems with the UK’s supervisory bodies.”

 

围观:慈展会上的那些观点2016-09-27 来源 :公益时报  作者 : 菅宇正 王会贤

俯视慈展会中心路演区

在第五届深圳慈展会上,超过230名国内外公益界领袖被邀请在平行召开的国际公益峰会、分专题研讨会上分享公益界的最新操作、趋势和观点,话题包括慈善文化、《慈善法》、筹资、公益创新、慈善信托、社会企业、企业社会责任、社会价值投资、女性慈善、社区基金会……

他们都分享了哪些内容,对公益行业的发展有持什么样的观点呢?

南都公益基金会理事长 徐永光:

《慈善法》落实与社会企业

“中国慈善未来的健康发展,还需要制度环境的不断完善,中国第一部《慈善法》已经在本月实施,但还有很多东西需要落地,特别是政策的落地。最重要的是税收政策的实施。我刚听说老牛基金会被追缴了2.5亿的企业所得税,还罚了800万的滞纳金,基金会的投资收益也要缴纳企业所得税;除此之外,包括华民基金会2亿元资金缩减为5000万,安利基金会1亿原始资金缩减5000万等。这些大基金会纷纷缩水的问题亟须解决。而如今,《慈善法》中已经规定,慈善组织取得的收入享受税收优惠,税收闸门开,财源滚滚来。因此,我们大家一起来推动吧,或者坐着静候佳音。”在首日的国际公益峰会上,南都基金会理事长徐永光说道。

此外,徐永光还表示,中国公益慈善领域将出现三个大趋势:1、互联网带来大变革,互联网技术的变化将带来一系列的市场创新和社会创新;2、社会企业运动;3、跨界平台合作的发展,解决了我国很多基金会有钱缺乏好项目,而又有很多好项目找不到资金支持的尴尬处境。

“社会企业,就是要突破当前一个尴尬处境:政府有钱有权,该做好但是没做好;社会组织无钱无权没能力,想做好但是做不好;企业有钱有人有能力,但趋利不愿做。”在“社会企业如何促进社会公益的可持续发展”的论坛上,徐永光这样阐述社会企业的优势。

他说:“有很多人问我社会企业到底是什么,和其他企业又有什么分别。如果将所有的企业都呈现在一个靶向图上面,处在靶向图最外延,也就是1环、2环,甚至0环、脱靶位置的就是社会的无良企业,这些企业制造环境污染、视频安全问题等等;而在创造利润的同时又积极为员工、社会、环境等承担相应责任,在依法纳税同时参与公益事业的企业处在4、5、6环等中间位置;当企业具备很强社会责任,也在公益领域形成了自己的系统和战略布局,处于8环,如互联网企业、绿色农业等;9环企业,往往与政府的公共服务领域具有很强的重合性,比如在养老、教育、医疗、残疾人就业等等,他们能够用自身的优质服务,满足社会需求,满足中央提出的供给侧改革要求;而处于10环的就是真正的社会企业,是在9环的基础上,目标非常明确,以满足社会刚性需求、精准解决社会问题的企业。他们打中了靶心,也就是打动了人心,真正击中了社会痛点。”

徐永光也举出了一例处于10环的社会企业成功案例:绿康医院。他介绍道,绿康医院经过资本介入后,从原先的社会服务机构成为企业,专门提供面向失能、失智老人的服务,精准满足社会刚性需求。从2006年成立到2013年之前,该医院是一家民办非企业机构,而在2013年引入风险投资后,变更为绿康医院风险投资有限公司。在引进资本后,资本的“趋利性”反而推动企业更好的发展,因为只有做好企业才会有利可图,到2016年,企业规模增长了10倍。很多政府建立的养老机构也交由他们管理,形成了“共建民营”的局面。

深圳国际公益学院院长 王振耀:

慈善经济时代正在来临 本届慈展会是社会化、专业化、国际化的展会。本届慈展会的主题是“以法兴善”,里的“法”就是我国的首部《慈善法》,里面将“慈善”定义为“大慈善”。在本届慈展会的重头戏——2016国际公益峰会上,联合国秘书长潘基文也发来视频致辞,呼应“大慈善”:“慈善是国家与人民之间表达团结与友谊的一种重要方式。慈善是我们可以对人类的共同未来做出的最佳投资之一。”

,世界经济与社会正在接受善的洗礼,“善”正在成为人类文明的共同价值。中国慈善事业正在全面走向世界,正在迅猛地融入世界。《慈善法》允许慈善组织通过投资保值增值,这将为中国的善财释放巨大的能量。”

深圳国际公益学院董事会主席 马蔚华:

对于陈光标,社会自有公论  

在本届慈展会上,面对主持人问及对陈光标事件的看法,深圳国际公益学院董事会主席、壹基金理事长、原招商银行行长马蔚华公开表示:“每个人的追求方式不一样,有很低调的,有很张扬的,自己实实在在的财富,实实在在地捐给社会,这就是公益。另外,我们这个公益是一个公开的,大家都看得见的,自有公论的事,每一个公益人做公益,社会对他都有评价。我觉得慈善是一个很公平的事,每个人按照自己的方式,社会自有公论。”

此外,对于已经正式颁布实施的《慈善法》,马蔚华认为它代表着我国公益慈善事业真正进入依法治善的时代,包括大慈善概念、现代慈善的确立、公益组织实行备案制等都是《慈善法》的亮点,但也有一些令人遗憾的地方,如慈善组织的管理费有待提高;税收优惠方面,虽然明确了可以享受税收优惠,但在具体实施方面没有具体规定,期待财政部门等尽快出台慈善公益减免税收的具体细则。

北京巧女公益基金会会长 何巧女:

三十亿变成五六十亿  

“2015年,我开启了自己新的事业——巧女基金会,当年8月我也做了一笔市值三十亿的股捐承诺,但是过去一年多的时间中,我没有想清楚巧女基金会的战略。我特别喜欢马蔚华行长的一句话:一定要用现代企业的方法去管理公益慈善组织。所以从根本上,可以说我还没有找到适合巧女基金会的商业模式。如今,我将试着通过打造一个环保慈善家的生态圈进而建立中国环保公益生态圈,保护我们的环境。”在国际公益峰会上,东方园林董事长何巧女说道,“当时承诺股捐价值三十亿,但随着企业业绩增长,捐赠的是没问题的,我希望在五六年之内就把钱捐完,其中至少要拿出三四十亿来做环保。”

深圳市中国慈展会发展中心秘书长 典春丽:

社会企业认证趋于严格  

在去年的第四届深圳慈展会上,首批认证了7家社会企业对外公布。今年,第二批获得认证的社会企业再次公布,共有16家企业认定为社会企业。对于本次评选工作,深圳市中国慈展会发展中心秘书长典春丽表示,本次申请认定的企业章程中,一定要有明确的社会目标,如促进就业、精准扶贫、环境保护等社会问题,且企业成立满一年,有明确的治理结构,全职受薪人员不少于3人,而企业收入中50%来源于其商品出售或提供的服务。

而在今年的认定结果中,被评为“金牌企业”的仅有一家,获此殊荣的为中和农信项目管理公司。据中和农信副总经理窦华茂介绍:“中和农信专注于农村小微信贷,就是通过为农村低收入人群提供便捷的上门服务,为他们提供急需的资金支持,从而帮助他们彻底改变生活。我们的优势就是:门槛极低,无需财产抵押,无需公职人员担保;方便快捷,一个电话,上门服务,手续简便,三天到账。目前,中和农信已经累计放款150笔贷款,累计放款金额达到167亿元,覆盖全国18个省210个县。”

中国社会保障学会会长 郑功成:

慈善离不开政府“中国的慈善事业已经进入了一个以跨界合作为大背景的时代,就政府和慈善事业而言,政府的公益事业、社会福利事业是要受制约的。而慈善事业如果离开了政府的支持,成为一个自生自灭的领域,它恐怕是无法真正成长起来的。所以即便是政府与慈善组织之间,也应该是一种合作的机制。应该是一种相互融合、相得益彰的机制。”在“国际公益峰会”上,全国人大常委会委员、中国社会保障学会会长郑功成说道。

郑功成还表示,在当下中国慈善事业发展过程中还应该坚持两个尊重:其一,尊重慈善事业发展的客观规律,包括:1.自愿性、志愿性;2.民间性,即慈善事业是建立在民间捐赠基础上的,政府与慈善组织不应该是管理和被管理的关系,而应该是伙伴合作的关系;3.开放性,即社会化,通过社会化的机制来成就现代的慈善事业。再者,尊重中国的基本国情,中国人将乐善好施作为一种美德、文化传承至今,是将其作为个人积德、修身的一种行为,它距离我们所期望的慈善事业中互为他人的社会行为还有一定距离。但是我们不能因为这样而否定它,因为它是当下中国的基本国情,应该立足国情,推动个人慈善认识、推动社区慈善发展,达到共建共享,才能真正推动慈善事业的发展。

华民慈善基金会理事长 卢德之:

以共享精神来治理资本 “十多天前在杭州召开的G20峰会,各国的首脑们对全球发展形成了许多共识,概括起来就是这两个关键词:资本、共享。”卢德之说道,“我认为资本的运行经历了三个阶段。20世纪以前应该说它是一个大发展的阶段;到20世纪特别是20世纪的中叶,那是对资本进行约束的阶段,比如说福利国家政策等等;进入了21世纪,应该提出治理资本阶段,既要有物理治理,也要有精神治理,特别是要有目标治理,这个目标治理就叫以共享来治理资本。如何共享呢?有两种方式,一个是强制共享,比如说税收制度、遗产税、高消费税等等,还有一种是自愿共享,那就是我们讲的慈善。让慈善作为共享的手段,作为共享的一种路径,它是人人参与、人人受益的过程。”

卢德之表示,应该深刻地认识到资本与共享才是人类发展的主旋律。也就是说“经济+精神”才能构成社会的主旋律。同时还应有更宽的视野,追求发展的同时,更应该考虑与自然、社会可持续发展的道路与模式。

中国扶贫基金会秘书长 刘文奎:

贫富差距的根源 贫富差距的根源,在中国扶贫基金会秘书长刘文奎看来,在于现代企业制度为基础的现代资本机制。这一机制将资本的所有权和经营权分离,资本可以一直拥有最好的资源、人才、技术,而没有资本的人始终无法得到提升,最终造成富者更富、贫者更贫。

政府税收机制作为社会第二次财富分配并没有发挥其在解决贫富差距方面应有的作用,因此,慈善事业开始不断发展壮大,但时至今日仍然没有从根本上解决问题。

如今,社会企业又被人们寄予厚望,希望解决那些尚未根除的问题。刘文奎认为,社会企业就是社会影响力投资的一个结果或者成果,与企业的不同点有三:

1.资本去向——社会企业属于社会投资,产生的资本增值部分形成的是社会资本、公共财产,不再是私企私人资本的累积;

2.业务范围——社会企业道德底线更高,在守法的同时以不产生社会问题为底线,不同于私企的“无禁止即可为”;

3.成功的标准——社会企业的成功标准是彻底解决一类社会问题,而并非私企单纯的经济利润。

中国人民大学中国公益创新研究院院长 康晓光:

筹款之时,勿忘初心

“筹款的最终目的——筹款人为什么筹款,说直接点也就是我们筹款的‘初心’是否还保持着,尤为值得关注。”中国人民大学公益创新研究院院长康晓光在“2016国际公益慈善筹款大会”上说道。

“筹款培训,一方面应该真正根据中国市场的需求,深度开发真正适合的募款手段、技术。另一方面,筹款培训,要更注重价值观、文化理念的培训。因为在目前,很多慈善基金会在筹款过程中,越来越出现非常商业化的字眼,如:大额捐赠客户、散户、客户满意度等等,而真正受助者的需求却不再成为重点,这与慈善组织的初衷是相悖的。慈善组织筹款是必要的,但是慈善组织筹款的最终目标是要解决受助者的真正需求,是要解决一类社会问题。因此,筹款为了谁、为了什么,应该是最为重要的,而不是将筹款作为唯一价值导向,不应该让金钱支配行动。”

国际“益人”:

我们同样受信任危机困扰

目前,随着我国公益慈善事业的发展,越来越多的公众对我国公益机构的善款使用反馈及运作透明度不断提出质疑和更高的要求,而这样的问题在世界范围内也普遍存在。

“我们发现越来越多的公众捐赠资金流向了慈善类基金或慈善信托,而不是直接捐赠给慈善组织,原因就是因为目前美国的公益机构在募捐款项的使用方式及后期信息反馈方面出现了很大的问题。比如在美国有一家专门从事为战争中受伤的人员提供帮助的公益机构,全年筹资后有1700万~2000万美元的资金用于各种会议和机构运作支出,与其用于受助者的资金近乎持平,这让很多公众无法接受。此类无法达到捐赠人预期以及信息反馈不够的问题,会导致公众对公益机构信任出现动摇,这是我们目前迫切需要解决的问题。”美国公益筹款人协会国际发展委员会主席Penelope Cagney说道。

而同样的问题在英国也存在,英国最大的面对面筹资公司HOME FUNDRAISING联席总经理Dominic Will坦言:“从电话筹资到面对面筹资,我们一直致力于培养公众形成一种自愿、主动、持续的捐赠意识,例如,固定每个月从其银行账户扣除一定资金捐赠给慈善组织。如今,公众意识已经形成,我们的筹款金额也不断增加,但与此同时,我们的筹款成本也不断攀升,而面对公众对资金使用的迫切需求,出现了断层。类似2015年一位老人因逼捐而自杀的事件,在凸显出英国监管部门存在问题的同时,也让公众对公益机构的信任因此受挫。”

Translated by 秦 天

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