The Succesful Corporate Partnerships of Beijing’s Hongdandan

CDB's 2015 report on "Effective Communication and Cooperation between Chinese NGOs and Businesses"

中文 English

This article is part of CDB’s Special Focus on “Effective Communication and Cooperation between NGOs and Businesses”. It originally formed the first case study in CDB’s latest research report which we released in July 2015 (you can view the original here). Over the next few weeks we will be publishing translations of the ten case studies contained in that report. The case studies detail partnerships between Chinese NGOs, foundations, and businesses.

Corporate funding in China

Chinese NGOs benefit from financial partnerships with private enterprises. In the early stages of cooperation between businesses and Chinese NGOs, relationships were for the most part marked by simple and direct funding, and supported with extremely limited funds. This relationship was linked to the objectives and methods of private enterprises at the time, and to the early stage of development of Chinese NGOs. Perhaps even more so it was also linked to the societal background and the relationship between the government, businesses, and civil society at the time.

The primary modes and objectives for businesses contributions are associated with one another. Many years ago, a local charity leader claimed that donating to charity “can be a means to gain government recognition and the right to political participation such as qualification to be a member of the People’s Congress or the CPPCC [Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference].” Businesses, especially in the entrepreneurial start-up period, need to acquire immediate resources to survive and develop, and in China the majority of resources remain in the hands of government. Charitable giving became a means to exchange for these resources, and this approach still exists now. However, as they grow and expand, Chinese businesses are beginning to become more pro-active in the field of public service. This is bringing great changes to the ways in which Chinese businesses donate funds and participate in charity.

For the most part, the founders of early NGOs possessed strong leadership qualities, links to resources within the system, and name recognition. The work of early NGOs was one-sidedly regarded as the charity of “good deeds”, which relied on tragic stories and a “tear-jerk factor” to attract donations. Fund-raising methods were also somewhat unsystematic, with many NGOs relying on chance and circumstance rather than strategic planning, to obtain funds.

The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake created space for widespread discussion about the business sector’s role in charitable giving. After donating 2 million RMB to the relief effort, the chairman of Vanke, Wang Shi stated that “it is appropriate for Vanke to donate 2 million”, and also stipulated that “Vanke’s average workers are restricted to giving 10 RMB, so as not to make charitable-giving a burden.” Almost immediately popular online forums were inundated with comments from netizens expressing criticism, doubt, discontent, and ridicule of the chairman’s comment. Under public pressure, Wang Shi issued an open apology. Looking back at this controversy in 2015, although Vanke may have made or conveyed decisions in an inappropriate manner, it is impressive to note that this publicly traded company observed a system of establishing annual charitable giving quotas ratified by a board of directors. Now, due to the establishment of corporate foundations and specialized CSR (corporate social responsibility) departments, the rate of systematic and independent corporate contributions is beginning to rise in China.

Accordingly, since 2008 Chinese the Chinese NGO sector has experienced great changes. Hotspots of NGOs – such as in Guangdong and Shanghai – have been fostered through progressive local policies, and the overall number of NGOs in China has rapidly increased. These NGOs remain heavily affected by the external environmental. Their operation continues to rely heavily on funding from international organizations and this is becoming more difficult with each passing day. In light of this, the Chinese NGO sector, with its growing emphasis on professionalization, self-sufficiency, and efficiency, has urgently begun moving towards partnering with private enterprises to obtain resources. However, generally speaking, partnerships between public interest organizations and private enterprises over the last decade have remained almost unchanged. Nevertheless, as it is noted in CDB’s 2015 report, the exploration and practices of some pioneers have opened up the possibility of greater cooperation between the two sectors. This will not just solve funding issues, it will also positively impact other areas, such as organizational management, team-building, and professional development.

Blooming cooperation between corporations and Hongdandan

The Beijing Hongdandan Education and Culture Exchange Center (红丹丹文化交流中心, referred to below as “Hongdandan”) was established in Beijing in July 20031. The Center is dedicated to using audio to create accessible cultural products for those with visual impairment, and to improving the lives of the visually impaired by providing aids such as “talking” movies , audio books and reading materials. After experiencing a series of crises in 2005, Hongdandan turned to partnerships with corporations as a means of survival. Over the past two years, Hongdandan again resolved its funding source challenges by utilising the methodology of social enterprises. From the brink of bankruptcy to increased growth and expansion, there is much to learn from the experience of Hongdandan and its corporate partnerships.

Before 2005 Hongdandan’s funding channels were very narrow, consisting primarily of program funding from international foundations. However, beginning in 2006 Hongdandan completely ended its partnership with international foundations for a number of reasons2. Following this self-imposed cut-off from funding sources, Hongdandan plunged into an unsustainable situation. While the organization was engaged in litigation the “Fuping Development Institute” introduced Hongdandan to Microsoft. By April of the same year, Microsoft began to send volunteers to participate in Hongdandan’s “Theater of the Mind” activities, and provided computer maintenance and other professional services. Microsoft provided a glimmer of hope to Hongdandan at its most difficult time, and impelled Hongdandan to turn the focus of its partnerships towards the private sector.

On the first anniversary of this initial crisis, April 2006, Hongdandan received an opportunity to partner with the Radio Beijing Corporation (北京人民广播电台), with the radio station willing to feature long-term broadcasts of “Theater of the Mind” as a service to the visually impaired. However, according to regulations, the station required a sponsorship fee. This led Hongdandan to seek out Bayer Pharmaceutical Company’s corporate social responsibility department, hoping that the business would help solve this problem. After being told about the “Theater of the Mind” program, Bayer decided to offer financial assistance to Hongdandan in the form of public service advertisements. After receiving 70,000 RMB of start-up capital, “Theater of the Mind” successfully began to air. From its inception the broadcast stirred up a large social response, and within a few short months it was reported on Beijing Radio & Television Network’s talkshow “The Seventh Day” (第 七日) and CCTV’s “Oriental Horizon” (东方时空), making the program even more popular. In October 2006 Hongdandan decided to organize a large-scale “Theater of the Mind” campaign at the PLA Theater, and Bayer promised to provide full financial sponsorship. Hongdandan also utilized the advertisement screens at the PLA Theater event to provide “free” publicity about Bayer’s charitable support of the activity. Hongdandan and Bayer’s relationship grew deeper due to the positive publicity that this event received. In addition to providing sustainable financial support to Hongdandan, Bayer also began sending volunteers to provide “Theater of the Mind” with manpower.

After Microsoft and Bayer’s initial partnership in 2006, the “Theater of the Mind” program became financially sustainable and Hongdandan completely broke off its reliance on foundation support. As a matter of fact, the influence of Microsoft and Bayer on Hongdandan far outweighed the support of any one single activity. The work of volunteers from Microsoft caused Hongdandan to receive more attention from the corporate sector, and businesses began to take initiatives to establish contact with Hongdandan through Microsoft.

In 2007, a media report about the experiences of a Chinese Starbucks employee volunteering with Hongdandan caught the attention of the Starbucks regional manager. Starbucks’ employee volunteer group, under the support of the Regional Manager, began partnering with Hongdandan. Every month at a settled time this employee volunteer group took coffee and snacks to the “Theater of the Mind”, helped the visually impaired to “listen to” movie clips, and also used tastes and smells to help the visually impaired experience the world through different senses. The partnership between Hongdandan and Starbucks was not solely a one-sided voluntary service program. Hongdandan also educated Starbucks through every method available, deeply entrenching the idea of “helping the blind” within its business actions. Hongdandan would send workers to Starbuck’s cafes and give Starbucks employees training on how to guide the visually impaired. Hongdandan hoped that through these kinds of methods it could slowly influence businesses and transform social attitudes towards the blind.

Beginning in 2007, many CCTV hosts, led by Wang Xiaoya, volunteered at “Theater of the Mind” by helping the visually impaired listen to movies, and the program team from the CCTV talkshow “Tell It Like It Is”(实话实说)extended an invitation for Microsoft volunteers to record a program together with Hongdandan. After these scattered partnerships Hongdandan gained a certain degree of influence with CCTV. Therefore, beginning in May of 2008, CCTV’s financial channel officially became a member of Hongdandan’s volunteer team, regularly sending hosts every last week of the month to “Theater of the Mind” to provide professional audio services.

Hongdandan comprehensively considered what businesses it would choose for partnership, seeking assistance by targeting varied companies with unique traits. For example, the partnership with CCTV was chosen because of the immense social influence held by the station’s hosts and anchor people, and the partnership with Starbucks was chosen because of the large number of Starbucks coffee shop locations and the large number of lower-level employees with strong service skills who could volunteer for the organization. Several large-scale events after the partnership were staffed with volunteers from Starbucks, whose support provided ample manpower. Microsoft also used its leading IT technology to provide a specialized “cloud service” during the development of the “Library of the Mind” audio program, which allowed the visually impaired to use their phones to listen to audio books. A Hong Kong business also provided specially-made braille scarves. The organizations could raise funds through charity auctions, and could publicize effectively by donating to people from all walks of life who had previously received services. Continuous support from varied sources allowed Hongdandan to leverage these resources from businesses to provide long-term services to the blind.

After just several years of effort, Hongdandan’s main program, the “Theater of the Mind”, was already made sustainable through corporate funding. But a steady stream of aid and support still could not fulfil the organization’s mission of “promoting social integration and a supportive environment for the visually impaired.” Hongdandan began exploring ideas of self-sufficiency at the intersection of the societal and business spheres.

In 2009 Hongdandan designed a card that used braille prompts to help the visually impaired to quickly distinguish between different denominations of paper money. However, after its design there was not a channel to bring it into the market. At this time, another beneficial partnership with the corporate sector created an opportunity for Hongdandan. In April of 2011 a leader of the Beijing branch of the China Construction Bank contacted Hongdandan about the possibility of future partnership. Hongdandan utilized this opportunity to recommend the card to the leadership at China Construction Bank. At that time it just so happened that a number of discrimination incidents involving visually impaired people in banks had just occurred, which evoked a strong response from society. Therefore China Construction Bank quickly agreed to the partnership, and under the bank’s financial support Hongdandan distributed its first batch of cards to its Beijing branches. Afterwards, the leader of China Construction Bank introduced the cards as an example at a national China Banking Regulatory Commission meeting to demonstrate its experiences with improving accessibility. Fortunately, after half a year, the China Banking Regulatory Commission released a document requiring all bank teller counters to provide the accessibility cards for the blind. At that time all banks sought out Hongdandan to buy the cards, with the Agricultural Bank of China buying cards for more than 20,000 branches in a single order. By 2014 Hongdandan had sold over 700,000 RMB worth of cards to assist the blind, enabling the organization to completely turn its accounts from the red to the black.

In 2014 Hongdandan presented its “Beijing Map for the Blind” project as a government procured service. It aimed to make going outside in Beijing more convenient for the visually impaired, and also aimed to compel more public organizations to provide services. As a component of the project, the organization initiated contact with Walmart, and provided training to Walmart’s employees, educating cashiers and salespeople how to better service the visually impaired. While in the initial phase of promotion these training services did not require the financial support of the company and were provided completely free as a form of advocacy. Hongdandan hoped to bring blind customers into the store after the training to enable the company to understand the benefits of helping the visually impaired. It remains to be seen whether if in the future the government were to cease its support of this program, Hongdandan could also provide paid training services to corporations, and use the revenues to guarantee the continued operation of the “Beijing Map for the blind” project.

Partnership with the Beijing historical imperial site Prince Gong’s Mansion (恭王府) was also a way for Hongdandan to provide standardized products for the market. In 2010 Hongdandan and Prince Gong’s Mansion signed an agreement in which Hongdandan provided free training sessions on how to help the visually impaired, and in turn Prince Gong’s Mansion established a public service day every month in which it provided free tours for the visually impaired. Following this, Hongdandan developed a 3D travel guide for the blind for Prince Gong’s Mansion and helped the Mansion apply to become a “grade 5A” scenic spot (the highest level tourist attraction in China). The travel guide was just a part of Hongdandan’s integrated advocacy. Although the cooperation was one of mutual exchange, in the end the partnership was for the convenience of a vast number of visually impaired.

For the past ten years, through funding and volunteer support from the corporate sector, Hongdandan has has adhered to their mantra of “voluntary support and self-sufficiency” (“志愿-输血- 造血”). From the story of Hongdandan we can see that obtaining funds from profits and corporate sources in an appropriate way need not have a negative effect on an organization, but rather allows the organization to continue to fulfil its mission.

The China Association for NGO Cooperation (CANGO), Non Profit Incubator (NPI, and the International Communication Center’s 2011 survey, the “Research Report on Cooperation between Chinese NGOs and Business” (中国公益组织与企业合作调研报告), shows that of the companies surveyed about their investment in CSR, 45% had invested between 1.01 million to 9.9 million RMB. For the majority of those surveyed, investment in CSR remained in the range of a few million RMB. In addition, 25% of companies had invested more than 10 million RMB. Moreover, SynTao’s 2015 study “2015 Professional CSR Manager Research Report” (2015年CSR职业经理人调查报告) shows that 49% of companies had a budget below 1 million RMB for CSR, and 17% of companies budget more than 10 million RMB. It is thus clear that the amount of money that businesses invest in CSR towards civil society organizations is not trivial. However, the proportion of funding sources from businesses to NGOs surveyed was not high. Each company will partner with many public welfare organizations, with NGOs only accounting for a small share of support.

The partnership between Hongdandan and the corporate sphere can be contemplated from several aspects. Research and previous data shows that companies are most willing to donate to fields such as education, disaster relief, and elder care. Disability services is a field which can be unattractive to investment because it usually does not show results in a short-time frame. However as an organization which helps the disabled, almost all of Hongdandan’s funding comes from corporate sources. What exactly is the key to a successful partnership?

This kind of partnership in fact is an incremental process. The volunteer partnership between Hongdandan and China Construction Bank, for example, is relatively long-term. Volunteers grow to understand the needs of the visually impaired, and are able to see the problems from the perspective of Hongdandan. At the beginning of the partnership it was easy for the two sides to communicate, and to avoid the problem of not knowing what the other is speaking of due to the differences in terminology between the public interest organization and corporate sectors. In choosing to partner with the bank Hongdandan took into consideration the intellectual property protection a NGO could receive by partnering with a large-scale enterprise. Because Hongdandan had been involved in problematic situations in the past, as soon as the organization designed its braille card to help the blind it immediately applied for a patent.

In regards to product promotion, a presentation by a leader of the Beijing branch of China Construction Bank at a national meeting of bank leaders explained the public benefit of using Hongdandan’s card. This kind of presentation is very powerful promotion. Later, after the China Banking Regulatory Commission released a document requiring the provision of accessibility tools for the impaired, related departments would carry out implementation inspections. Therefore many more banks began to partner with Hongdandan. Today over ten Chinese banks use Hongdandan’s braille card to assist their visually impaired customers. Through this card the visually impaired are able to complete their transactions independently, contributing to an increased respect for their personal privacy rights. This card is a tool which has brought the concepts of “respect” and “empowerment” to the banking industry, and which has made more people understand what the needs of the visually impaired are. Hongdandan’s braille bank card has become a vehicle for advocacy for the rights of the disabled in China.

Both sides of this bilateral cooperation have found points of agreement in meeting the demands of one another. From a corporate point of view, in comparison to excessive advertising fees, a bank’s investment in a few thousand cards makes a great impact. From another point of view, if banks were to give money to produce these cards for NGOs, perhaps it would not be able to intuitively see the impact and reasons why it’s helping produce the cards. According to some critics, Chinese NGOs in their early stages did not adequately deal with the complexity of social problems, or they were too distant from the social problems they tried to solve. NGOs believe that they should stand on high moral ground, and businesses should follow with support. However, when NGOs fail to provide effective services to companies, why would the company offer its support? After all, the ultimate goal of a company is profit maximization, not maximization of social responsibility.

Hongdandan’s braille bank cards  are a symbol that makes clear that Chinese NGOs are moving towards a transition phase. At a recent forum involving NGOs and companies in Shanghai, one businessman commented that NGOs should improve their services, policies and attitude. The normal concept is that if you provide good standardized programs or services, companies will want to invest in them. In partnering with businesses, Chinese NGOs often believe that the rules and standards created by corporations will not be in line with their own aims and methods. However, why can’t NGOs provide their own specialized metrics for standards to corporations? If an NGO can provide normalized standards and possess the required implementation capacity, and if it can achieve excellent communication and partnership with companies, it can have companies accept results in accordance with standard program evaluation of NGOs.


  1. Hongdandan’s website is here: http://www.hongdandan.org/ 

  2. One of these reasons was a legal dispute involving international funders and third-parties. See here http://gongyi.sina.com.cn/gyzx/2008-10-22/10524200.html  

重要的资助伙伴——红丹丹与企业合作全面开花

       企业成为资助伙伴是公益组织重要的诉求。早期的企业和公益组织的关系,多是直接、简单的资金支持的关系,而且资金量非常有限。这与早期公益组织发展阶段和 企业捐助目标、模式有关,更是与当时政商社三个部门的关系和社会背景相关。企业主要的捐助模式与捐助目标相关,多年前某地慈善会领导曾经这样劝募:慈善捐 赠“可获得政府的表彰、参政议政的权利,比方人大政协委员年检进度的资质等等”。企业,尤其在创业初期需要获得生存和发展的直接资源,大部分仍然在政府手 中。公益捐赠往往成为一种获得资源的交换方式,现在这个方式仍然在起作用。当企业成功后,在寻求更有价值的人生体验中,企业会在公益领域施展更多的作为, 其捐助方式和参与公益的方式也大为改变。

早期公益组织创办人大多有非常明显的领袖气质,拥有体制内资源和名人效应。早期公益组织的工作也片面地被看成崇高的好人好事和慈善,靠眼泪指数、悲情奉献 就可能吸引到筹款。筹款的方式也很随机,一些公益组织通过自己的知名度和影响力,通过与企业负责人在某些场合开会等偶然机会,可能就得到了捐款。

企业慈善捐赠模式到2008年汶川地震中有了公开的讨论。2008年在为四川地震灾区捐款200万元之后,万科董事长王石表示,“万科捐出200万是合适 的”,并规定“普通员工限捐10元,不要让慈善成为负担”。顿时网民的质疑、不满、嘲讽、谩骂遍布各大网络论坛,迫于舆压力,王石公开道歉 。7年之后再看这场争论,这个时机选择有问题或者表达的不够圆满,但是作为一家上市公司,每年用于慈善的额度需董事会批准是一个既成应遵守的制度。现在, 通过成立企业基金会,或者专业的CSR等部门,理性捐助、自主捐助在企业捐助中的比例开始上升。

相应地,2008年以来中国公益组织也发生了很大的变化,广东、上海等发达地区出台了扶植服务型社会组织的政策和措施,公益组织的数量增加较快。外部环境 对公益组织的生存影响很大,中国公益组织依靠国外基金会资助的日子日趋艰难,政府购买设置各种门槛,大大减少了资金渠道的可及性。在越来越强调自我造血、 专业性、效率的公益业界,与企业合作、获取资源成为一个急切的趋向。然而,一般来讲,10年间公益组织与企业的合作现状几乎没有整体性的改变。但是,读者 将会从本报告中看到,一些先行者的探索和实践,为这两个部门的合作展开了多种可能性。

除了来自企业资金的支持,因为与公益组织的合作,企业也带来了其他方面的影响。比如机构的运作方式、团队建设,还有专业能力的培养等等方面。

       案例   红丹丹与企业开出合作之花

北京红丹丹教育文化交流中心(以下简称红丹丹)2003年7月在北京成立,致力于用声音为盲人提供无障碍的文化产品,通过“讲”电影,提供有声读物等方式 便利视障人士的生活。2005年,在经历了国外基金会危机、“BBC诉讼”等一系列风波之后,红丹丹转而与企业进行合作,勉强生存下来。而近两年,红丹丹 又通过社会企业的形式解决了资金来源。从濒临破产到愈发壮大,红丹丹与企业合作方面有很多值得借鉴的经验。

在2005年以前,红丹丹的主要募款渠道还很狭窄,主要是通过国外基金会拿到项目资助。但从2006年起,因为种种原因,红丹丹全面停止了跟国外基金会的 合作。在自断资助来源之后,红丹丹立刻陷入了无以为继的境地。正在机构忙于诉讼的时候,“北京富平学校”将微软介绍给了红丹丹。很快,在当年4月微软就开 始派出志愿者参加“心目电影院”的活动,并提供电脑维护等专业性服务。在最困难的时候,微软的加入带给红丹丹一丝曙光,也促使红丹丹把合作重心转向了企 业。初度难关后,2006年4月,红丹丹又得到一个和北京人民广播电台合作的机会,电台同意将“心目影院”制成一档长期节目为盲人朋友服务。但是按照规 定,电台需要一定的赞助费。于是红丹丹找到了拜耳公司的企业社会责任部门,希望企业能帮助解决这一问题。拜耳在了解了“心目影院”的项目后,决定以公益广 告的形式给予红丹丹资金支持。在7万元启动资金到位后,心目影院节目在电台顺利开播了。开播后,引起了巨大的社会反响,短短几个月之内就被北京电视台《第 七日》和央视《东方时空》专题报道,“心目影院”从而有了一定的影响力。2006年10月,红丹丹又在解放军歌剧院开展了一次大型的“心目影院”活动,拜 耳答应提供全额资金支持。红丹丹也利用解放军歌剧院的广告屏为拜耳的公益活动进行了“免费”的宣传。因为良好的宣传效果,拜耳和红丹丹的合作也更为深入, 在持续的资金支持的同时,拜耳也向“心目影院”派驻志愿者,为红丹丹提供人力的支持。

2006年与微软和拜耳的初步合作后,“心目影院”项目正式稳定下来,红丹丹也彻底摆脱了对基金会的依赖。事实上,微软和拜耳为红丹丹带来的影响远远超过单一的活动本身。微软的志愿者行动使得红丹丹得到了更多企业的关注,一些企业开始通过微软主动与红丹丹建立联系。

2007年,星巴克的一位员工在在红丹丹做志愿者的经历经过媒体报道后受到了星巴克区域经理的注意。于是,在区域经理的支持下,星巴克的员工志愿小组也开 始与红丹丹进行志愿合作。员工志愿小组每月会在固定的时间把咖啡、点心等食品带到心目影院,供盲人朋友“听”电影时品尝,在帮助盲人“听”电影时,也用味 道帮助盲人感知世界。红丹丹与星巴克的合作不仅仅是单方的志愿服务,红丹丹也通过各种方式不断地对星巴克进行倡导,把助盲的理念深入到企业的行为中。红丹 丹会派出工作人员进入星巴克门店,给星巴克的员工进行培训,帮助他们引导盲人进店消费。红丹丹希望通过这种方式一步一步来影响企业,进而改变社会对盲人的 态度。

从2007年开始,以王小丫为代表的众多央视主持人都曾来到“心目影院”为盲人讲电影,《实话实说》栏目组还邀请微软志愿者和红丹丹一起录制了一档节目。 在这些零星的合作后,红丹丹在央视内部也有了一定的影响力,于是从2008年5月开始,央视财经频道正式加入了红丹丹的志愿队伍,固定在每月最后一个周末 派出主持人为心目电影院提供专业的有声服务。

红丹丹在选择合作企业时也会有综合考量,会运用不同企业的特点有针对性地寻求企业帮助。比如和央视的合作,就是看到这些主持人拥有巨大的社会影响力量;和 星巴克的合作是考虑到星巴克门店众多,基层服务人员服务能力强,能为机构提供大量志愿者。红丹丹在之后的几次大型活动中都通过星巴克的调配,得到了充足的 人力支持。微软也运用领先的IT技术,在红丹丹开发“心目图书馆”有声书项目时提供了专业的“云服务”的支持,使盲人对着手机读出书名就能听到有声书,极 大地便利了盲人的生活。还有一家香港企业为机构提供特制的盲文丝巾。机构可以通过义卖筹得善款,还可以赠送给前来参观服务的各界人士,达到宣传的效果。各 种资源的联动使红丹丹能充分利用企业的资源为助盲活动提供长期的支持。

经过几年的努力,红丹丹的主要项目“心目电影院”已经能在企业的帮助下长期进行下去了。但源源不断的输血还不能达到机构“倡导社会为视障人群提供融合性支持环境”的使命。红丹丹在社会企业的思路下开始了自我造血的探索。

2009年红丹丹设计了一款可以随身携带的助盲卡片,通过盲文提示,能够帮助盲人快速分辨钞票的面额。但在设计出来之后一直没有渠道将它推向市场,这时, 良好的企业关系又给红丹丹带来了机会。2011年4月,建设银行北京分行的领导来到红丹丹沟通下一步的合作方向,在这个契机下,红丹丹把助盲卡推荐给了建 行领导。当时全国各地恰好发生了多起盲人在银行打架的事件,社会反响强烈。于是建行很快答应合作,在建行的资助下,红丹丹提供了第一批助盲卡,在北京的建 行网点分发给盲人使用。之后,建行领导在全国银监会会议上以助盲卡为例,介绍了建行无障碍服务的经验。幸运的是,半年之后,银监会就发文,要求所有银行柜 台都必须配备无障碍助盲卡。一时间,各个银行纷纷找到红丹丹购买助盲卡,仅农行就一次性采购了供两万多个网点使用的助盲卡。2014年,红丹丹的助盲卡销 售额达到了70万人民币,使机构在账面上彻底扭亏为盈。

2014年,红丹丹还以政府购买服务的方式推出了“北京盲人生活地图”项目,将配备了盲人服务的公共文化机构纳入到地图中,一方面方便盲人出行,一方面也 倡导公共机构更多地向盲人开放服务。作为项目的一个部分,机构主动联系了沃尔玛超市,对沃尔玛员工进行盲人服务培训,帮助沃尔玛在收银、导购方面为盲人提 供更好的服务。在推广初期,这些培训都不会要求企业给予资助,完全以机构倡导的方式免费进行。红丹丹希望通过在培训后带领盲人朋友进入沃尔玛实地购物来使 企业了解助盲服务对企业的益处。可以看到,如果将来政府结束了对这一项目的支持,机构也可以以有偿服务的方式为企业提供培训,这一部分收入就可以保证“盲 人生活地图”项目能持续运作下去。

与恭王府的合作也是红丹丹为市场提供标准化产品的一部分。2010年,红丹丹与北京恭王府签订协议,由红丹丹为恭王府提供免费的助盲培训,恭王府则每月设 立一个公益日为盲人朋友提供免费的游览服务。在这之后,红丹丹为恭王府开发了立体盲人导览册,为恭王府申办5A级景区提供了帮助。导览册也只是红丹丹进行 融合性倡导的一部分,虽然跟企业进行的是“互有往来”的合作,但最终得到便利的还是广大盲人朋友。

由企业提供资金和志愿支持,红丹丹进行简单的公益宣传,并以社会企业的思路创造利润,这种“志愿-输血-造血”的模式在红丹丹的坚持下一做就是近10年。从红丹丹的故事中我们看到,适当的盈利并不会对机构产生负面影响,反而能使机构能更从容地将自己的使命坚持下去。

中国国际民间组织促进会、恩派和国际传播中心2011年的《中国公益组织与企业合作调研报告》调查显示,受访企业在企业社会责任方面的投资,45%企业选 择投入在101~999万,大部分企业CSR方面的投资是在几百万这个区间。另外,还有25%不低于1000万。此外,商道纵横2015年所做调研 《2015年CSR职业经理人调查报告》显示,49%的企业CSR预算在100万以下,预算超过1000万的企业占17%。可见企业在CSR方面的投资相 对民间组织的实际资金规模并不算低,但是受访的公益组织投资渠道来自于企业的比例并不高,从企业的角度看,企业会有多家合作机构,只是公益组织占了很小的 份额(赵坤宁,2011)。

红丹丹与企业合作的案例有很多可琢磨之处。在调研中和以往的一些数据显示,企业最愿意捐助的领域往往是教育、救灾、养老等,残障是一个很难在短期呈现出效果的领域,但是红丹丹作为一个助残组织,资金来源却几乎全部来源于企业。成功合作的关键在哪里?

这种合作实际上是一个积累的过程,红丹丹与中国建设银行的志愿者合作时间比较长,志愿者知道盲人的很多需求,所以能站在红丹丹的角度去理解残障问题。在合 作之初,双方比较容易沟通,避免了公益组织和企业往往各持不同话语体系,不知对方讲什么的困境。红丹丹选择和银行合作,是考虑到一个大型企业在知识产权保 护各方面会给公益组织很多尊重。因为红丹丹曾被人骗过,所以当时设计完了助盲卡就及时申请了专利。

在推广方面,在一次全国银行行长会上建行北京分行行长拿着这张卡,讲解他们在做的公益,这是非常有力的一次推广。后来银监会出台文件,要给残疾人辅助工 具,文件发布之后一般就会有相关部门的落实检查。这样更多的银行开始与红丹丹合作。现在已经有10多家银行用上红丹丹的助盲卡。

通过这张卡,盲人完全可以独立在银行办理事务,有助于尊重他们的隐私权,也增长他们的能力;通过卡片这个工具才能将“尊重”、“赋权”的概念进入银行,让更多的人知道盲人这个群体的需求在哪里,这个卡片成为残障群体权利倡导的媒介。

合作的双方都找到了彼此需求的契合点。从企业需求角度看盲人卡,相比庞大的广告费,一家银行用很少资金可以购买数千张卡,但是影响很大,边际效用高。换个 角度来说,如果让银行拿钱为公益组织生产这个卡,企业可能不能直观地找到生产这个卡与它的联系。有评论说,早期公益组织跟社会问题的复杂度没有契合,或者 契合点差得很远。公益组织认为自己站在道德制高点上,企业就该支持。但是当公益组织为企业提供不了有效的服务的时候,企业凭什么支持你?企业的诉求终归是 利益最大化,而不是社会责任最大化。

以助盲卡为标志,昭示公益组织开始进入一个产品化阶段。在上海组织的一次公益组织与企业沟通的座谈会上,一位来自企业的人士说,公益组织恰恰要做的就是改 善自己的服务,改善自己的策略和态度。只有提供了标准化的项目,好的项目和服务才能说服企业投钱给你们,这是相当正常的观念。公益组织会觉得合作当中企业 制定的标准不符合公益组织运行和发展的机理。但为什么公益组织不能提供给企业一个自己专业化的衡量标准呢?如果公益组织能够提供准化的标准和执行能力,可 以和企业进行很好的沟通,达成很好的合作,让企业接受按照公益组织的标准评测公益组织的项目执行结果 。

Translated by Samantha Moritz

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