The Chinese Charity Sector’s Top 10 News Stories in 2016

公益时报

中文 English

The 2016 Annual Conference of Chinese Charity was held at the Beijing National Convention Center on the 27th of December. Apart from summing up the development of China’s charity sector in 2016, the organizers also proclaimed “the top 10 news stories of the charity sector in 2016” on the basis of a public vote and expert recommendations:

1. The Charity Law and accompanying policies are introduced, improving the legislative environment in the charity sector.

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On March 16th, the Charity Law of the People’s Republic of China was adopted by the 4th session of the 12th National People’s Congress. On the same day, the president of the People’s Republic of China Xi Jinping signed a Presidential Decree, officially declaring that the Charity law would be implemented on September 1st, 2016.

In order to support the implementation of the Law, the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the “opinions on the reform of social organization management systems to promote a healthy and orderly development”; three regulations for social organizations were revised and feedback was sought from the public; and the Ministry of Civil Affairs formulated a series of regulations, including the “charitable organizations’ identity regulation”, the “charitable organizations’ public fundraising regulation”, the “charitable organizations’ annual management of expenditures regulation” and the “public fundraising platform service management regulation”.

2. Alibaba’s Xin Charity Conference and the Tencent 9.9 Charity Day are held. Internet giants use technology to promote change in the charity sector.

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The Alibaba Foundation organized the first global XIN conference on July 9-10, in order to encourage grassroots organizations, support global environmental protection, express its concern for more than 40 million rural children and teachers around the country and build a charitable culture in which everybody can participate.

On September 9th, the Tencent 9.9 Charity Day was held. A total of 6.77 million people donated 350 million Yuan through the Tencent charity platform for 3643 charitable projects. Counting the donations from the Tencent Foundation and enterprises’ matching donations (which means that an enterprise will donate an equivalent amount of money every time an individual makes a donation), the total donated was more than 600 million.

Such actions by the internet giants show that they are not willing to be only donors anymore; instead, they want to promote the development of the charity sector through their own efforts. Technology allows enterprises, charitable organizations, celebrities and the public to connect to each other. Using a variety of online and offline channels, the “Internet + Charity” combination has exploded with all its unprecedented power.

3. The Luo Er incident continues to simmer. The standardization of personal online help-seeking faces challenges.

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In January, an internet celebrity on Zhihu (the Chinese Quora), going by the account name of Tong Yao, was detained by the Suzhou Municipal Public Security Bureau because he conducted fraudulent fundraising by pretending to be a female university student with a serious heart disease.

In November, a man named Luo Er posted an article about his daughter suffering from leukemia on WeChat. A great number of warm-hearted people made donations. However, some internet users soon pointed out that Luo Er actually owned three properties, that he was using a public account to raise funds, and that behind his fundraising there was the P2P company Xiaotongren that was trying to promote itself. In the end more than 2.6 million was returned to the donors.

The year of 2016 saw a series of controversial cases of online personal help-seeking. The truth about these stories kept being reversed, exposing the problems of personal help-seeking to the public. Due to these doubts and controversies, the differences between personal help-seeking and public fundraising have become clear to more and more people. The role of charitable organizations has received more acceptance. Online personal help-seeking will not be stopped and controversial events will happen again. However, it is important that the charity sector should grow stronger and be able to face these events.

4. Large donations from Ma Huateng, Xiong Xinxiang, Xun Chuanhua and Chen Tianjian show how rich Chinese are changing their attitude towards wealth.

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Great amounts of money were frequently donated during 2016. In April, the chairman of the board and CEO of Tencent Ma Huateng announced that he was going to donate 100 million shares of Tencent stock to the charitable foundation that the company was preparing to establish. In September, the 1986 alumni of the University of Electronic Science and Technology and chairman of Chongqing Boen Electronic Science and Technology (Group) Company Xiong Xinxiang donated 1.03 billion Yuan to establish the “Boen Education Development Fund”. In October, the shareholders of the Transfar Company Xu Chuanhua, Xu Guanju and Xu Guanbao agreed to donate cash and negotiable securities with a total value of 3 billion Yuan to support the Transfar Foundation that they were going to build. In December, Chen Tianqiao and his wife Luo Qianqian donated 115 million US dollars to fund interdisciplinary research in brain science at the California Institute of Technology.

The frequent large donations show that after years of experimentation, the rich Chinese are changing their attitude towards wealth. At the same time their actions, for instance the donation of shares, the establishment of foundations and donations to other countries, indicate that the trend is towards donating in a more rational fashion. This is not only an opportunity, but also a challenge for the Chinese charity sector.

5. The state council issues “the opinions on strengthening the care and protection of left behind children in rural areas”. The protection of 9.02 million left-behind children turns into part of the national strategy, and the work of protecting these children becomes more systematic.

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On February 14th, the state council issued “the opinions on strengthening the care and protection of left-behind children in rural areas”, stating the overall goal of protecting left-behind children. The work of protecting left-behind children has thus turned into a national strategy and is becoming more institutionalized.

27 authorities, including the Ministry of Civil Affairs, have established a joint ministerial meeting system. The Ministry of Civil Affairs, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Public Security carried out diagnostic investigation work, and the result shows that there are still 9.6 million left-behind children under 16 years of age.

In 2016, the goals, policies, institutions and targets have all been put in place to ensure the institutionalization, standardization and normalization of the work of left-behind children protection. The whole of society is also paying a lot more attention to this problem.

6. Judgement on the first case of public welfare litigation on air pollution is passed in the first instance, solving the issue of how to assess the damage from pollution and becoming a model for environmental litigations.

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In July, Shandong Province’s Dezhou Intermediate People’s Court publicly announced its first-instance judgment in the air pollution responsibility dispute between the China Environmental Federation and the Company named Zhenhua. Zhenhua was sentenced to pay an indemnity of 21.9836 million Yuan to improve the air quality in Dezhou, due to its excessive discharge of pollutants. Also, the Company was sentenced to apologize to the public through the media at the provincial level or above. This was the very first case of public litigation regarding air pollution since the introduction of the new Environment Law.

After two years, environmental charitable litigations have gradually expanded from water pollution to other fields, including land and air pollution and cultural relics, and the number of charitable organizations that file lawsuits is increasing. Environmental litigations are no longer a sporadic occurrence, and will inevitably become normalized.

7. The Ministry of Public Security launches a platform to deliver urgent information on missing children. Thanks to this official channel, the public now pays more attention to finding missing children.

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In May, the Ministry of Public Security launched a platform to spread urgent information on children who have gone missing, meaning that there is now an official channel for spreading such information. This platform is able to help local public security authorities and policemen to post information on missing children immediately, and automatically pass it on to the new media and to people in the vicinity of the locations where the children went lost, in order to find them as soon as possible. The platform has released information on 286 children, and helped 260 children find their way home, with a total success rate of 90.91%.

In November, the second version of the platform came into use. More new media and mobile application platforms are involved, and the channels and scope of information delivery have been expanded. Using technology to connect governments, internet platforms and the public allows for the integration of resources, ensuring security and also reducing the difficulty in finding lost children.

8. 12 departments, including the Ministry of Civil Affairs, jointly issue the “opinions on strengthening the development of professional work and staff incentives in social work”. Social work begins to develop rapidly again.

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In November, the Ministry of Civil Affairs held a social work promotion conference in Guangzhou, summing up the achievement and experiences of social work over the last ten years. Over this time, social work teams made up of talented professionals have grown rapidly. There are now 760.000 social workers, and 300.000 of them hold a professional certificate. Subsequently, 12 central departments jointly released the “opinions on strengthening the development of professional work and staff incentives in social work”.

The “opinions” set many new concepts and requirements for social work: there is a clear definition of the scope of social work, including six kinds of occupational tasks, which mainly distinguish social work from other occupations, social organizations and volunteers; more job positions will be available to social workers, both within and outside the system; there is now a clear line on social workers’ salary adjustments, social insurance, housing funds, resident status and low-income housing, and paid services have received a clear definition; social workers are more likely to enter the grassroots leadership system, and the voice of the CPPCC and the NPC has become more authoritative.

The path for social work to develop has now been clearly delineated. After ten years of rapid development, social work will have another opportunity to move forward.

9. The Ministry of Civil Affairs intensifies the supervision of social organizations and exposes numerous fake social organizations. The number of unqualified foundations uncovered in the annual investigation increases. The social organizations’ sector is cleaned up and the public image of social organizations improves.

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In March the Ministry of Civil Affairs set up an “exposure platform”, continuously publishing the names of “offshore organizations” and “fake organizations”. So far, 13 batches of names have been announced and more than 1000 organizations have been exposed. These organizations had not registered with the civil affairs authorities, and most of them contained the words “China” or “national” in their names. Their aim was to raise funds in China, and their methods included developing their membership, establishing branch organizations and collecting membership fees, carrying out activities to collect money and collecting training fees, some of them even extorting fees from enterprises.

The strict supervision and penalties for fake organizations will increase the cost of violations and reduce their breathing space. This will not only prevent the public from being cheated, but also improve the public image of social organizations.

10. “The Overseas NGO Management Law of the People’s Republic of China” is issued. Its aim is to standardize and guide overseas NGOs’ activities within mainland China, as well as guarantee their legal rights.

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In April, the 20th session of the 12th Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress adopted the Overseas NGO Law. In November, the Ministry of Public Security released the Guidelines on Registering a Representative Office and Filing to Conduct Temporary Activities for Overseas NGOs, and in December, the List of Fields of Activity, Categories of Projects and Professional Supervisory Units for Overseas NGOs Carrying out Activities in Mainland China was released. These laid the foundation for the implementation of the Overseas NGO Law on January the 1st, 2017.

The public security departments, rather then the civil affair departments, are now responsible for the registration and management of overseas NGOs. Regulations have been released to manage the establishment of representative offices and the process of filing to carry out temporary activities. The ways in which overseas and domestic NGOs can cooperate have also been clarified. The final impact of all this is not yet clear, but the changes are inevitable and the charity sector should adapt to them as soon as possible.

12月27日,2016中国公益年会在北京国家会议中心举办。在总结2016公益行业发展历程的基础上,主办方发布了经过公众投票和专家推荐评选出的“2016年度十大公益新闻”:

1《慈善法》及配套法规政策出台,推动慈善行业进入法治时代

3月16日, 第十二届全国人民代表大会第四次会议表决通过了《中华人民共和国慈善法》。同日,中华人民共和国主席习近平签署主席令,正式将《慈善法》予以公布,并于2016年9月1日起施行。

为配合《慈善法》的实施,中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅印发了《关于改革社会组织管理制度促进社会组织健康有序发展的意见》;社会组织三大条例相继修订并向社会征求意见;民政部制定了《慈善组织认定办法》、《慈善组织公开募捐管理办法》《关于慈善组织开展慈善活动年度支出和管理费用的规定》、《公开募捐平台服务管理办法》等一系列具体实施细则。

作为我国公益慈善领域的首部专门法律,《慈善法》及其配套法规政策的出台塑造了慈善领域的基本运行规则,对于推进中国慈善事业的规范化发展具有里程碑意义。中国的慈善事业迎来了一个快速发展的机遇期。

2阿里XIN公益大会、腾讯99公益日相继举办,互联网巨头用技术改变公益生态、推动公益变革。

7月9日至10日,阿里巴巴公益基金会举办了首届全球XIN 公益大会,鼓励草根公益组织,支持全球环保行动,关心全国4000余万乡村儿童和乡村教师,并推动建立人人参与的XIN公益文化。

9月9日,腾讯9·9公益日再次举办,累计677万人次通过腾讯公益平台捐款3.05亿元,为3643个在筹公益项目献出了自己的爱心。加上腾讯基金会和企业配捐的配捐,筹集善款金额超过6亿元。

互联网巨头在公益领域大动作不断,显示出他们不愿再只做捐赠者,而是渴望用行动推动行业发展。技术的力量使企业、公益机构、明星名人、公众得以连接在一起,通过线上线下的多元化渠道,“互联网+公益”的大生态爆发出了空前的力量。

3罗尔事件等不断发酵,个人网络求助的规范化面临挑战。

1月,知乎大V“童瑶”因自编自演女大学生无钱治病求捐助的戏码骗捐被苏州市公安局刑事拘留。2月,在德留学生因患白血病而在轻松筹发起众筹被质疑有保险,最终被冻结。11月,罗尔在微信公号记录患白血病女儿治疗过程,引发社会好心人士打赏捐助。有网友指出,罗尔有三套房产,利用公众号募捐,幕后是小铜人公司炒作该事件进行营销。最终260余万赞赏资金被原路退回。

个人求助在一个个争议事件中走过了2016年,不断反转的剧情将个人网络求助的种种问题暴露在公众面前。在质疑与争议中,关于个人求助与公开募捐的区别被越来越多的公众所知晓,公益组织的作用受到了更多的认可。网络个人求助不会由此断绝,争议事件也必将再次发生,重要的是公益慈善行业需要更快强大起来。

4马化腾、熊新翔、徐传化、陈天桥等大额捐赠,中国富人财富观实现转型

2016年,大额捐赠频发。4月,腾讯公司董事会主席兼首席执行官马化腾宣布,将捐出一亿股腾讯股票注入正在筹建中的公益慈善基金;9月,电子科技大学1986级校友、重庆博恩科技(集团)有限公司董事长熊新翔捐资10.3亿元设立“博恩教育发展基金”;10月,控股股东传化集团股东徐传化、徐冠巨、徐观宝一致同意,捐出总价值30亿的现金和有价证券,注入正在筹建中的传化公益慈善基金会;12月,陈天桥雒芊芊夫妇向加州理工学院捐赠1.15亿美元,为加州理工学院脑科学的跨学科研究提供资助。

大额捐赠在一年内如此密集出现,显示出中国的富人群体经过多年摸索,其财富观正在发生转型。与此同时,股捐、设立慈善机构、向国外捐赠等一系列动作,显示出理性捐赠正在成为主流,对中国的公益慈善行业来说,是机遇,更是挑战。

5国务院发布《关于加强农村留守儿童关爱保护工作的意见》,902万留守儿童保护工作被纳入国家战略,留守儿童保护工作实现制度化。

2月14日,国务院发布《关于加强农村留守儿童关爱保护工作的意见》,提出加强农村留守儿童关爱保护工作的总体目标,留守儿童关爱保护工作上升为国家战略,走向体系化建设之路。

民政部等27个部门建立农村留守儿童关爱保护工作部际联席会议制度,统筹协调全国农村留守儿童关爱保护工作。民政部、教育部、公安部开展农村留守儿童摸底排查工作,共排查出不满十六周岁的农村留守儿童数量为902万人。

2016年,留守儿童保护工作的目标、政策、机构、对象均已落实到位,保护工作走向制度化、规范化、常态化,全社会对留守儿童工作的重视程度极大提高。

6全国首例大气污染公益诉讼案一审宣判,解决了“污染损害评估”的难题,成为环境公益诉讼的标杆。

7月,山东省德州市中级人民法院对中华环保联合会与德州晶华集团振华有限公司(以下简称“振华公司”)大气环境污染责任纠纷公益诉讼一案,依法公开作出一审宣判,判决被告振华公司赔偿因超标排放污染物造成的损失2198.36万元,用于德州市大气环境质量修复,并在省级以上媒体向社会公开赔礼道歉。该案件是新环保法面世后全国首起针对大气污染行为的环境公益诉讼案件。

经过两年的发展,环境公益诉讼的领域从水污染逐渐扩展到土地、空气、文物等多个领域,提起环境公益诉讼的环保组织也在不断增加。环境公益诉讼不再是零星的个案,走向常态化已经成为一种必然。

7公安部推出儿童失踪信息紧急发布平台,儿童失踪信息发布有了官方渠道,全社会对失踪儿童寻找的重视程度提高。

5月,公安部推出儿童失踪紧急发布平台,儿童失踪信息的发布有了官方渠道。平台可协助各地公安机关打拐民警即时发布各地儿童失踪信息,并自动推送到相关新媒体和失踪地周边一定范围内相关人群,以尽快找回失踪儿童。上线6个月共发布失踪儿童信息286条,找回儿童260名,找回儿童比例达到90.91 %

11月,平台二期上线,接入多家新媒体和移动应用平台,进一步扩大了平台信息发布渠道和范围。用技术连接政府、互联网平台、公众,既整合了资源,有保证了安全性,寻找失踪儿童的难度将大大降低。

8民政部等12部门联合出台《关于加强社会工作专业岗位开发与人才激励保障的意见》,社会工作再次迎来快速发展。

11月,民政部在广州召开全国社会工作推进会,全面总结十年来社会工作发展成绩与经验。社会工作专业人才队伍迅速壮大,规模总量达到76万人,其中持证社工近30万人。随后,民政部网站公布了中央12部门联合出台的《关于加强社会工作专业岗位开发与人才激励保障的意见》。

《意见》针对社工发展提出了许多新的说法与要求:社工是干什么的有了明确的界定,主要包括六类职业任务,尤其是与其他职业、与其他社会组织、与志愿者进行了区分;更多的机构的岗位将向社工敞开,无论是体制内、体制外;社工的薪酬调整、社会保险、公积金、户籍、保障房等都有了明确的说法,而收费服务也得到了正名;社工将更多进入基层领导班子、政协、人大,话语权将大大提高。

社工的发展成长途径被明确,社会工作快速发展十年后,将迎来高起点上的再次快速发展。

9民政部加强社会组织监管工作,公布多批“山寨社团”,年检不合格基金会数量上涨,社会组织领域得到净化 ,社会组织的公众形象得到改善。

从3月开始,民政部设立了曝光台,陆续公布“离岸社团”“山寨社团”。截至目前共公布了13批“离岸社团”“山寨社团”名单,被曝光的机构已经达到1000多家。这些机构并未在我国民政部门合法登记,多数都冠以“中国”“中华”“全国”等国字头字样,主要目的就是在境内敛财,敛财手段包括发展会员、成立分会收取会费,发牌照、搞评选颁奖活动收钱,搞行业培训收费,有些甚至向企业敲诈勒索。

民政等相关部门对“山寨社团”“离岸社团”的严管严罚,将提高违规违法成本,压缩其生存空间,避免社会公众上当受骗的同时,社会组织领域也得到了净化,有助于改善社会组织的公众形象。

10《境外非政府组织境内活动管理法》出台,进一步规范、引导了境外非政府组织在中国境内的活动,保障了境外组织的合法权益。

4月,《中华人民共和国境外非政府组织境内活动管理法》在十二届全国人大常委会第二十次会议上表决通过。11月,公安部发布《境外非政府组织代表机构登记和临时活动备案办事指南》;12月,《境外非政府组织在中国境内活动领域和项目目录、业务主管单位名录》发布,为2017年1月1日该法正式实施奠定了基础。

境外非政府组织的登记管理机关由民政部门改为公安部门,其代表处设立、临时活动备案等都有了相关规范,尤其是与境内社会组织的合作方式也得到了明确。其最终影响目前尚未显现,但由此带来的变化却是必然的,公益慈善行业也需要及早对此进行适应。

Translated by Huang Jie

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