What were the New Patterns and Visions for Chinese Charity in 2016?

中国非公募基金会发展论坛

中文 English

Editor’s Note

On November the 23th 2016, the “development of non-public foundations forum·2016 annual meeting” came successfully to a close in Shanghai. During the closing ceremony Wang Xingzui, the executive vice-president of the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation, gave a speech in which he summarized and analyzed the content of the debate that had taken place over the previous two days. We have translated the speech into English.

 

This is the first time for me to attend this forum on the development of non-public foundations, and it will also be the last. I have followed the meeting for one and a half days, and it has left me with two impressions. First of all, I feel very happy. I am very pleased to see so many new and old teams from foundations full of passion and dreams, particularly the teams from non-public foundations. They will probably be a catalyst for the industry. Secondly, I feel very stressed. Today I am faced with a lot of enthusiastic youth. We have been called the “uncles” of the industry, but I feel it makes one feel very old to be called an “uncle”, so I’d rather be referred to as an “older brother”. I have thus been constantly questioning, transcending and innovating myself, with the aim of becoming everyone’s “older brother” within the industry.

We have attempted a lot of innovations in these years. The secretary of the forum invited us to attend the forum and asked me to summarize the meeting. To be honest, I am not good at doing summaries. Having been assigned with this task, I listened very carefully over these two days. I brought two people along to the meeting as well, one a current colleague and the other a former colleague, to help me record it. I will try my best to include all the content that was discussed in these days, but it is impossible. I hope all of you can find your ideas and speeches in my summary but if you do not, please forgive me and remember that we still have the finale with our big boss.

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The theme of this forum is “New Pattern, New Vision”, and my summary begins from the new patterns and visions. In the meetings last afternoon, there were some people not directly involved with the public welfare industry, including professors from the National School of Administration, Tsinghua University and from China Agricultural University. From the perspectives of management, government, sociology and development, they described a large new pattern, or new environment, that we are facing.

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Six new patterns, analyzing the current situation

The economy, politics, laws and the industry has created the current situation with regards to ecology, diversity and capital. The Internet and the technology of the Internet of Things have also brought opportunities and challenges to the industry.

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Firstly, economic prosperity has enabled public welfare to develop in an explosive way. The reason we are all sitting here today is due to the nearly 40 years of reform and opening-up that promoted the national economy and then the progress of society, making it possible to evolve into a thriving modern industry. Our GDP per capita reached 7,500 dollars in 2014, 8,016 in 2015, and now 8,500. From the point of view of international comparisons, when the GDP per capita reaches 6,000 dollars, both the changes in the social forces and the development of public welfare will experience explosive growth. There are now three kinds of organizations in the industry. According to statistics gathered last year there are 660,000 organizations in total, with basically an average annual growth rate of more than 10%. This is the new economic pattern we are confronting.

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Secondly, in the international economic and political stage, we are gradually making some achievements. Internationally we are making a difference instead of keeping a low profile, something so far unprecedented. We are now actively involved in the changes in the international economic and political situation, marking our transformation from passive to active participants in the making of the rules.

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Thirdly, the implementation of the Charity Law will promote the comprehensive development of the public welfare industry. It can be seen that the law will benefit everyone concerned, while breaking the monopoly of public fundraising privileges. During this meeting, everyone has been mentioning that this will be the last meeting for non-public foundations, which sounds a little sad. But the atmosphere is very good and we all have great expectations. The introduction of the Charity Law has blurred the distinctions between public and non-public foundations, and it provides an opportunity to develop the industry of the foundations. The government requires that charitable organizations should receive tax concessions, which is an important chapter of the Charity Law. This is a great change and new pattern we are faced with.

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Fourthly, cross-sector diversity means that the industry full of dynamic interactions. By looking at the structure of public organizations, we can see that the size of foundations varies, from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches. The orientation of each organization is not exactly the same. The main areas in which they used to be active were poverty alleviation and environmental protection. But now we want to do development research, including supporting talent and so on, and there are many foundations of this kind.

Our members come from different areas, and while they are happy about cross-sectoral communication, there are in fact some limitations. The kind of crossing of sectors that we are talking about is more between enterprises and public organizations: while some have achieved the transformation, others have their feet in two boats. But how about the interaction between the public welfare industry and the government? Basically there is none. In fact, government has not yet come and participated in public welfare directly. On the other hand there are many academic seminars, but how many members of academic institutions, including university professors, get involved in practical work, and how many people become university teachers after working in public welfare? We see few, and Zhao Hua is an exception. Anyway, cross-sectoral diversification is a new pattern and also a new phenomenon for our industry.

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Fifthly, sharing capital unleashes the drive for rapid development of the industry. It was mentioned previously that modern times are characterized by the mobility of capital. In the days when I took political science class in university, imperialism, as the pinnacle stage of capitalism, was proclaimed to be decadent, on the wane and dying. We used to think that capital is filthy and capitalists are exploitative, as we witnessed widespread starvation during the depression. As a result, we were convinced that capitalism was going to dig its own grave if it continued in its old trajectory. A few decades later however, we find that capitalism has not yet disappeared and is in fact here to stay. So why has capital become so thriving nowadays? This is because the bad sides of capital have been suppressed and the good ones developed. The inclination to do good leads capital flows into the public welfare sector, thus promoting a more prosperous and better structured society.

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Sixth, the Internet has thoroughly revolutionized the industry. Whether it is in brand promotion, financing, project implementation or information disclosure, the Internet and the Internet of Things have brought us great convenience. Just now Deng Feng spoke about the impact which high-speed trains have had on our projects, from the point of view of communication and transformation. In fact, the development of these two technologies also brings great challenges for the professionalization of our organizations.

I have just listed the six aspects of the new pattern and new vision. Some of this new vision has begun to be carried out, and some of it is still awaiting implementation.

Fourteen new visions, imagining the future of public welfare

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First of all we should build up China’s own development ethics, charitable values and culture. An idea was put forward yesterday, encouraging me to think about what kind of development the Chinese public service industry needs to form, and what kind of values and culture it needs to build. Our ideas on public welfare culture are traditional, teaching us to alleviate poverty, help the needy, be good people and do good deeds. It is the “Lei Feng style”, and we are deeply influenced by the traditional ideas. But as modern public welfare organizations, our level and knowledge need to be improved. The modern public welfare industry originally comes from the western countries, but we are not entirely the same as them, for instance in the issue of universal values. It is worthwhile to think about the differences and strive to make progress, yet it cannot be achieved overnight.

Secondly, social power shall develop and retain an independent will that does not rely on government or capital. A complete social structure requires the coordination of the whole social market sector. To a great extent the public welfare industry is still very weak and needs to be strengthened. We are like “water without a source” if there is no government support or capital inflow. With the introduction of new technology, we should make the best use of the Internet and the Internet of Things, and make public participation become a social trend.

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The third point is to combine micro-charity with macro-charity in order to build a better society. This idea was put forward by Professor Xue Lan (dean of the school of public administration, Tsinghua University). Micro-charity is made up of charitable activities and organizations based on empathy and care, and macro-charity is based on public governance.

Fourth, the division of labour and cooperation within the industry must be formed and reinforced. I believe that this division of labor, cooperation and interaction will be further strengthened in the future. As we have mentioned many times before, the public welfare industry is an industrial chain, and different public organizations should have different orientations and forms of cooperation in order to form a complete industrial chain. We have seen that in the China Foundation Center there are social enterprises, investment alliances, “Good Charity” platforms, Baidu’s platform and some joint advisory organizations serving this industry. What’s more, horizontal cooperation and interaction are being promoted and shall be increased in the near future.

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Fifth, social enterprises (social impact investment) are bound to become a new backbone of the public welfare industry. Tao Ze (the CEO of China Foundation Center) mentioned that public welfare cannot be sustainable or long-lasting in its solving of social problems if it isn’t profitable. Social impact investment and social enterprises provide a new method for engaging in public welfare. There are some but not too many successful cases in the industry. It is quite difficult for enterprises to solve social problems if they don’t have enough experience. So we should have hope for the bright future of social enterprises, but on the other hand we have to recognize that it is not an easy thing. Engaging in social enterprises calls for rigorousness, and you should hire qualified people to manage the company if you don’t have relevant experience. A social enterprise has a 90% chance of failure if managed without experience.

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Sixth, an increasing number of foundations and public organizations are going international and are involved in international development. There are in total 17 sustainable development goals, and it is noticeable that the number of public organizations is still at a limited level. According to some academics’ research, there are only 37 foundations that have international activities. The stock of international direct investment of Chinese enterprises is 600 billion dollars, or nearly 4 trillion yuan. What’s more there are 20,000 Chinese companies that have already set up their own independent subsidiaries or branches overseas. If they hope to survive for long, these enterprises had better fulfil their social responsibility. Although our country’s modern enterprises have a short history, we still have a certain experience of taking up social responsibility, which provides a chance for our charity sector to go global.

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Indeed it is visible that the government is constantly creating policies, including government and party documents, to encourage charity organizations to go international.

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Seventh, with the introduction of the Charity Law, I firmly believe that the charity sector’s total weight will be greatly enhanced, as an important part of the public welfare industry. The amount of registered volunteers is around 100 million, accounting for 7.2% of the total population, which still reveals a large gap in comparison to the United States. Right now we have dedicated organizations that provide volunteer services, other organizations that use the volunteers, and there is some participation in international activities. I believe that the volunteer services will be very large in the future, and perhaps we can create our own Peace Corps.

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Eighth, information disclosure requires foundations to be professional and work on information technology. Information disclosure is just the surface, and execution capacity is the deeper aspect of this requirement. If there is no set of institutional mechanisms, or a strong and professional team, then projects cannot be carried out and organizations are unable to continue to perform. Besides, information cannot be disclosed without an almost perfect system to collect the statistics. This brings about new requirements for the professionalism, costs and human input of organizations.

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Ninth, the Internet will exert a profound influence on charitable activities, promote public participation and enlarge charities’ scope of influence.

During the Tencent 99 Charity Day, there was a total of 6.99 million people who made donations and 4,643 fundraising projects that contributed, and the total amount of money collected was over 600 million yuan. When we cooperated with Tencent and Alibaba, we found that individual donations were over 40%. I think it would have been impossible to reach the current situation without mobile Internet technology.

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Tenth, the sources of charitable funds are expanding. We used to donate money directly, but now charity trust funds will be a new growth point. There are currently 15 charity trust funds.

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Eleventh, there is great potential in charities caring for old people. Professor Ma (Ma Qingyu, professor in the National School of Administration) said that the capacity of public services could reach 24 trillion. A lot of charities are now taking part in education, environmental protection and health care, but we have done little in the field of care for the elderly. This issue is currently addressed through commercial means, but the effects are not ideal. The involvement of the public welfare sector in this field remains too limited.

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Twelfth, non-public fundraising foundations may face new opportunities and challenges after the right to public fundraising opens up. The opportunity is that there will be more financing channels. However, Chairman Pan (Pan Jiangxue, the chairman of the Shanghai A Dream Foundation) summarized it very well yesterday: non-public foundations have internal joint-stock companies, and the public foundations are like listed companies. When you have to face the public, I think the most important issue is the cost — in the past if you raised 1 million the cost would be 10,000; but now, if there are 100 individuals who donate 10,000 each, the cost will be higher than if one individual donates one million alone. The average size of a single donation through the mobile internet is 50 yuan, and you can imagine how much the workload will have to increase. There will be many accountability issues raised.

Thirteenth, it is necessary to emphasize both charity and development instead of merely relief, enabling beneficiaries to embark on a path of sustainable self-development. We can see that most public organizations are still stuck at the level of just giving some money or goods to those lacking them, or giving some noodles or clothes, but if you send people these things one year, you will have to send them again the following year. When it comes to disaster relief, we react well to emergencies, but how much do we truly get involved in reconstruction? We should equip survivors with the necessary skills for survival and development, because this is the trend in public welfare. We are now stuck at the first phase, and the question is how to move on to the second and third phases.

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Fourteenth, public welfare organizations and teaching institutions have introduced funding and training programs for those working in public welfare, therefore the supply and professionalism of such people will be greatly improved, promoting the improvement of the entire industry.

官方发布】中国扶贫基金会执行副会长王行最:2016年中国公益的新格局新想象是什么? | 年会实录

2016-12-02 CFF1 中国非公募基金会发展论坛
2016年11月23日,中国非公募基金会发展论坛·2016年会在上海圆满闭幕,此次年会无论从议题设置还是服务形式上来说都得到了业内人士的广泛好评,我们将陆续整理出此次年会的精彩内容,供大家回顾和体会。本篇为您呈现23日闭幕式上王行最老师的总结发言。王会长从新格局、新想象两个维度,对两天的会议作了精辟的提炼与分析,非常值得再次阅读。王行最,中国扶贫基金会执行副会长(点击阅读原文,了解嘉宾更多信息)

王行最在中国非公募基金会发展论坛·2016年会上作总结发言

我是第一次参加非公募基金会论坛,也是最后一次。我听了一天半的会议,有两个感受:第一,感觉非常的欣慰。欣慰是看到了老中新结合、充满激情、充满活力、充满梦想的基金会队伍,特别是非公募基金会队伍,它应该是我们这个行业的催化剂。第二,我觉得倍感压力。今天我是面对一批追风的少年,曾经我们被称为行业里的“大叔”,我觉得大叔好像感觉有一点老了,我希望是大哥。所以这几年一直不断自我反省、自我超越、自我创新,力求在这个行业里面成为大家的大哥。

这几年里我们做过很多创新。这次论坛秘书长邀请我们参加非公募基金会论坛,让我总结,其实我不太擅长总结,接了这个任务之后,我这两天听得比较认真,除了我自己,我还带了两个人,一个是现在的同事,一个是前同事,帮助我记录,我会力图把大家这几天讨论的内容都表现进去,这是不可能完成的。希望大家在这总结里面看到自己的身影和发言,但是如果没有总结到,第一请大家包涵,第二我们还有老大在后面压轴。

这次非公募基金会论坛主题是新格局新想像,总结是从新格局和新想象开始。昨天下午的会议,各位跟公益行业不是直接相关,有国家行政学院,清华大学,农业大学老师的教授们,从管理学、政府学、社会学、发展学等各个角度为我们描述了现在面临的一个大的格局,或者是新的变化环境。

六大新格局,剖析公益现状

经济、政治、法律、行业形成生态、多元跨界、资本的共享以及移动互联网和物联网技术带来对行业的机遇和挑战。

第一,经济繁荣使公益行业爆发式地发展。实际上大家之所以坐在这里是因为经过将近40年的改革开放促进了整个国家经济的发展,从而推动社会的进步,才有可能演变成现代欣欣向荣的行业。2014年人均GDP达到7500美元,2015年8016,现在是8500,从国际比较来看,GDP达到6000美元的时候,无论是社会力量的变化,还是公益事业的发展,出现爆发式增长。现在所处行业有三类组织,去年统计有66万家,基本上每年平均增长率是10%以上,这是我们面临新的经济的格局。

第二,有所作为地走向国际政治和经济舞台。从国际来看,我们从韬光养晦变成现在有所作为,这是前所未有的、我们积极参与到改变国际经济政治格局当中,从被动规则到现在积极主动参与。

第三,《慈善法》促进公益行业全面发展。利好大家是有目共睹的,打破公募权垄断。这次我来,大家特别提到这是最后一届非公募基金会,听着有一点悲凉,但是气氛很好,大家是怀着期待的心情。《慈善法》出台后,公募与非公募的界限就模糊了,以后是我们基金行业的发展。政府对慈善组织要求税收优惠,这是慈善法重要的章节,这是我们面临的很大变化,是一个新的格局。

第四,多元跨界使公益行业充满活力碰撞。可以看到公益组织的构造,基金会构成有大有小,上游、中游、下游。每一个基金会的定位不完全一样。曾经主要做两方面:一是扶贫,二是环保。我们想做发展研究包括人才支持等等,这样的基金会非常的多。

同时我们人员的构成,来自不同的领域,大家欣喜地看到跨界流动的同时,实际上这个跨界还存在比较大的局限性。我们讲的跨界更多是企业界和公益界的交流:有一些跨过来,有的脚踩两只船。公益行业和政府有跨界吗?现在基本没有,政府有没有下来直接做公益的,这个也不是很多。学术之间的交流开研讨会比较多,但是我们看到有多少学术机构的人员,包括大学老师亲身的实践,或者是做完公益后到大学里当老师?这少之又少,赵华是例外。不管怎么讲,多元跨界是我们这个行业新的格局,也是一个新的气象。

第五资本共享使行业发展更迅猛。昨天下午谈到了近代以来一直强调的资本的流动性。大家学习过政治课,那时候是帝国主义,是资本主义的高级阶段,是垂死的、没落的、腐朽的。我们现在发现几十年以后,资本垂而不死,腐而不朽。原来我们以为资本是肮脏的,资本家就是剥削,大萧条时期看见很多人没有饭吃,如果资金主义以这种方式演变下去一定是要死的,但是资本为什么现在出现欣欣向荣的景象?是因为资本的恶得到了遏制,善得到了褒扬,资本从善使得资本流向公益,促进这个社会更加繁荣,使这个结构更加好。

移动互联网带来全新变革。无论是品牌推广、筹资、项目实施,还是信息披露,互联网和物联网给我们带来了非常大的便利。刚才邓飞强调高铁给我们项目带来的交流和变化。这两个信息技术的发展对我们机构专业化也带来巨大的挑战。这是我们面临六个方面新的格局,新的想像,有一些想像我们现在开始做了,有一些想像可能做得比较少。

十四大新想象,展望未来公益

 

第一,打造中国自己的发展伦理,公益价值观和文化。昨天提出了一个让我觉得很受鼓舞的观点,中国公益行业究竟要形成什么样的发展,什么样的公益价值观和文化?现在我们是传统的公益文化思想,扶贫济困、好人好事,是雷锋式的,我们受这样的影响。作为现代公益组织,我们的水平和认知要得到极大提高。现代公益慈善来自西方,他们好的东西其实跟我们不是说完全的相同,比如说普世性价值观,这是整个公益行业从业人员值得思考和努力的,当然也不是一朝一夕可以达到的。

第二,社会力量要生长出或者是培育出不依附政府也不依资本的主体性。作为一个完整的社会结构需要社会市场部门的协同配合。很大程度上,公益行业依然非常弱小,需要发展壮大。没有政府支持和资本的流入,我们是无源之水。随着新技术的引入我们应该更多拥抱互联网、物联网技术,更多依靠它们,使公众参与成为社会的潮流。

第三,将微公益与大公益有机结合,创造美好社会。这是薛澜教授(清华大学公共管理学院院长)提出来的,微公益是自上而下以慈悲为怀为基础的公益活动和组织。大公益是以公共治理为目标的公益活动组织。

第四,公益行业内组织的分工、协作、互动正在形成并将强化。我相信这种分工、协作、互动将会得到进一步强化。以前多次提到,公益行业是一个产业链,不同的公益组织应该有不同的定位,互相形成配合,形成整个行业的链条。这几年,我们看到基金会中心网这个行业平台,有中国社会企业、社会投资联盟、好公益平台、百度平台,还有联劝组织服务于这个行业,同时促进行业之间、机构之间的横向合作与互动,未来这些会越来越多。

第五,社会企业(社会影响力投资)将成为公益行业中非常重要的力量。陶泽(基金会中心网总裁)也讲了公益解决社会问题如果是无利可图,它是不可持续也不能长久的。影响力投资、社会企业提供的是一种新的做公益的方式。这个行业,也有成功的案例,但总的来说在中国公益市场上,并不是太多。要用企业方式解决,如果没有企业从业经验的人,办社会企业其实是很难的,所以一方面我们要看到社会企业美好的前景,同时也要认识到它不是一件容易的事情,所以搞社会企业要谨慎,你如果没有这方面的经验就要吸纳一些人才一起来做这件事情。一点管理企业经验都没有,这个社会企业十有八九会失败。

第六,越来越多基金会和其他公益组织走向国际,参与国际的发展。联合国17个可持续发展目标,现在走向国际的公益组织仍然是小众。有学者研究现在国际上有业务活动的有37家基金会。中国企业走出去,现在全球中资企业直接投资的存量大概是6千亿美元,将近4万亿人民币,中国两万家企业在海外设立了自己的独立子公司或者是分公司,企业如果希望在当地长久生存,履行企业社会责任是义不容辞的责任。虽然我国现代企业的发展历史比较短,但是从事现代社会责任的经验相对还是有一些,这为我们公益事业走出去提供了空间。

政府政策层面可以看到,近几年中央密集出台政策,来支持公益组织走出去。包括两办文件。

第七,随着《慈善法》出台,我相信公益总量比重会大幅度提升,成为公益行业重要组成部分。目前,注册登记志愿者是一个亿左右,占总人口7.2%,相比美国差距是非常大的。现在我们有专门的公益组织来做志愿者服务,也有不同的公益组织在使用部分的志愿服务,同时也有参与到国际志愿服务的活动。我相信以后公益行业里志愿者服务将会非常庞大,也会产生中国的和平会。

第八,信息披露对基金会提升机构专业性和信息化水平提出了非常高的要求。信息披露是一个表象,背后是机构执行力。如果没有一套体制机制,没有专业性比较强的队伍,不能把项目做好,把项目效果呈现出来,你就无法继续。同时,没有相对完善信息化体系来把这些项目的资料收集起来,你也不可能披露。这对我们机构的专业性、我们的这种成本以及人力投入都提出了新的要求。

第九,移动互联网将对公益产生深刻变化,催生新的公益,促进社会公众参与,使公益影响和覆盖面成倍的放大。

腾讯99公益日699万人次参与捐赠,4643个筹款项目贡献力量,总计金额超过6亿元,我们跟腾讯、阿里巴巴合作,公众捐赠达到了40%以上。另外这方面也在发生积极变化,他们利用99公益日筹了8千多万,公众捐款占到整个捐款大多数,如果没有移动互联网技术,这是难以想象的。

第十,公益资金来源越来越广泛,以前是直接捐赠,信托将成为新的增长点。现在慈善信托达到15家。

第十一,公益养老大有可为。昨天马老师(马庆钰,国家行政学院教授)说基于社会服务事业,大概有24万亿的容量。在教育、环保、医疗健康方面,我们现在许多的公益组织都有不同程度的参与。但是养老方面,我们可能涉足不多。现在多是以商业方式解决,但解决得不是很好。公益行业参与养老领域的机构少之又少。

第十二,公募权放开以后对非公募基金会带来机遇与挑战。机遇显然是筹资渠道越来越多。但是,昨天潘理事长(上海真爱梦想公益基金会理事长潘江雪)做了很好的阐述:非公募基金会在内部有股份制公司,公募基金会就像上市公司。你要面对的是公众,我觉得面对公众有一个很重要的方面就是成本——原来筹资100万,成本一万就可以了;现在如果是100个公众,每一个人捐1万块钱,100人捐100万,你的成本将高于一个人捐100万。通过移动互联网我们平均单笔捐款规模是50块钱,可以想象工作量会增加多少。将有许多问责问题提出来。

第十三,从纯善救济转向慈善与发展并重,助力受益人走上可持续自我发展的道路。我们现在可以看到大多数公益组织还停留在比如说缺钱给一点钱,缺物给一点物、送一点面条和衣服,但今年送了明年还需要你的支持。救灾领域,我们积极响应紧急救援响应,但是真正参与灾后重建的又有多少?我们使他们获得生存和发展必要的技能,这是未来我们的公益,现在是1.0版,以后走向2.0、3.0这是我们要考虑的问题。

第十四,公益和教学机构纷纷出台公益人才资助、培养计划,公益人才的供给和专业性将有较大提高,从而推动整个行业水平的提升。

公益新语

  • 让社会的变化带动社会的变化
  • 让社会看见真爱,让世界看见中国,让孩子看见未来
  • 自知问题,自觉纠正问题,自律不要犯错
  • 守住自己的底线、边界、价值观。

Translated by Ma Xiaohua

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